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The presence of alanine (Ala) or acetyl serine (AcSer) instead of the normal Val residues at the N-terminals of either the alpha- or the beta-subunits of human adult hemoglobin confers some novel and unexpected features on the protein. Mass spectrometric analysis confirmed that these substitutions were correct and that they were the only ones. Circular(More)
Different types of human hemoglobins (Hbs) consisting of various combinations of the embryonic, fetal, and adult Hb subunits are present at certain times during development representing a major paradigm of developmental biology that is still not understood and one which we address here. We show that the subunit interfaces of these Hbs have increasing(More)
The greatly increased tetramer strength of liganded fetal hemoglobin compared with adult hemoglobin is shown by its 70-fold smaller tetramer-dimer dissociation constant. This property has been shown previously to be only partially caused by the 5-amino-acid differences at both types of interfaces in each hemoglobin. A major contributor to tetramer(More)
HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect(More)
The expression of the six types of human Hb subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the 'extrinsic' component of regulation). Here, we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of(More)
This report establishes a correlation between two known properties of the human embryonic hemoglobins-- their weak subunit assemblies as demonstrated here by gel filtration at very dilute protein concentrations and their high oxygen affinities and reduced cooperativities reported previously by others but without a mechanistic basis. We demonstrate here that(More)
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