A. M. Makar'eva

  • Citations Per Year
Learn More
It is well known that closed systems tend to attain a stable state with the minimum degree of orderliness (maximum entropy, which is the measure of the disorder or randomness of the system). According to the second law of thermodynamics, entropy increases during a spontaneous irreversible process. Therefore, the processes of spontaneous ordering (entropy(More)
Closed systems are governed by the second law of thermodynamics and cannot spontaneously become more ordered. In open physical systems exposed to external energy flows, additional macroscopic degrees of freedom (“memory cells”) emerge, their number increasing with an increase in the flow and orderliness of the external energy. Biological systems are(More)
Haldane's rule stating that viability and fertility in the heterogametic sex of hybrids are lower than in the homogametic sex is explained on the basis of the assumption that diploidy is aimed at protecting individuals having large body size and large genomes from somatic mutations. The presence of hemizygous sex chromosomes, which are effectively haploid(More)
  • 1