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Normal movements commonly involve dynamic conditions where active muscles operate against other muscle forces, or against forces arising from decelerating limb inertia. In these situations, some active muscles spanning the joint are lengthened. Presently, our understanding of the muscle mechanics which operate in lengthening contractions, or during large(More)
Human upper limb movement trajectories have been shown to be quite smooth, in that time derivatives of end point position (r), including d3r/dt3 (i.e., jerk), appear to be minimized during rapid voluntary reaching tasks. Studies have suggested that these movements are implemented by an optimal neural controller which seeks to minimize a cost function, such(More)
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