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The formation and sinking of biogenic particles mediate vertical mass fluxes and drive elemental cycling in the ocean. Whereas marine sciences have focused primarily on particle production by phytoplankton growth, particle formation by the assembly of organic macromolecules has almost been neglected. Here we show, by means of a combined experimental and(More)
During SPURT (Spurenstofftransport in der Tropopausenregion, trace gas transport in the tropopause region) we performed measurements of a wide range of trace gases with different lifetimes and sink/source characteristics in the northern hemispheric upper troposphere (UT) and low-ermost stratosphere (LMS). A large number of in-situ instruments were deployed(More)
We studied the direct effects of CO 2 and related changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on marine planktonic organisms in a mesocosm experiment. In nine outdoor enclosures (ϳ11 m 3 each), the partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) in the seawater was modified by an aeration system. The triplicate mesocosm treatments represented low (ϳ190 parts per million by(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o The present study investigates the combined effect of phosphorous limitation, elevated partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) and temperature on a calcifying strain of Emiliania huxleyi (PML B92/11) by means of a fully controlled continuous culture facility. Two levels of phosphorous limitation were consecutively applied by renewal of(More)
Below please find additional information on Fractional Release Factors (FRFs) and the polynomials fitted to the data to calculate FRFs from mean ages of air (Table S1) as well as the methodology and parameters used to calculate the stratospheric lifetimes (Table S2).
We detected a compound previously unreported in the atmosphere, triflu-oromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF 5 CF 3). Measurements of its infrared absorption cross section show SF 5 CF 3 to have a radiative forcing of 0.57 watt per square meter per parts per billion. This is the largest radiative forcing, on a per molecule basis, of any gas found in the(More)
The influence of seawater carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration on the size distribution of suspended particles (2–60 µm) and on phytoplankton abundance was investigated during a mesocosm experiment at the large scale facility (LFS) in Bergen, Norway, in the frame of the Pelagic Ecosystem CO 2 Enrichment study (PeECE II). In nine outdoor enclosures the(More)
During phytoplankton growth a fraction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) assimilated by phytoplankton is exuded in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which can be transformed into extracellular particulate organic carbon (POC). A major fraction of extracellular POC is associated with carbon of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP; carbon content(More)