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Inward rectifier K+ channels pass prominent inward currents, while outward currents are largely blocked. The inward rectification is due to block by intracellular Mg2+ and a Mg(2+)-independent process described as intrinsic gating. The rapid loss of gating upon patch excision suggests that cytoplasmic factors participate in gating. "Intrinsic" gating can be(More)
The acoustic intermodulation distortion product 2f1-f2 (ADP) was measured in human subjects to investigate (1) the dependence of ADP level on stimulus parameters and (2) the relationship between ADP level and auditory sensitivity. The frequency ratio (f2/f1), at which ADP level is maximal, varies only slightly across frequency and subjects. The average(More)
SB 242084 has a high affinity (pKi 9.0) for the cloned human 5-HT2C receptor and 100- and 158-fold selectivity over the closely related cloned human 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A subtypes respectively. SB 242084 had over 100-fold selectivity over a range of other 5-HT, dopamine and adrenergic receptors. In studies of 5-HT-stimulated phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis(More)
Kvbeta subunits have been shown to affect kinetic properties of voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1alpha subunits and increase the number of cell surface dendrotoxin-binding sites when coexpressed with Kv1. 2. Here, we show that Kvbeta1.2 alters both current expression and gating of Kvalpha1 channels and that each effect is mediated by a distinct Kvbeta1.2 domain.(More)
Inwardly rectifying K+ channels (IRKs) conduct current preferentially in the inward direction. This inward rectification has two components: voltage-dependent blockade by intracellular Mg2+ (Mg2+i) and intrinsic gating. Two members of this channel family, IRK1 (ref. 10) and ROMK1 (ref. 11), differ markedly in affinity for Mg2+i (ref. 12). We found that IRK1(More)
The flow of Ca ions through single Ca channels has been examined. The gigaseal method was used on identifiable snail neurons that were voltage clamped using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp method. Average Ca patch currents and whole cell currents have similar time courses. They are affected similarly by changes in temperature. The differences in(More)
The hypothesis that dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive calcium channels have three distinct modes of gating has been examined. The major prediction is that the relative frequencies among modes depend on DHP concentration while the kinetics within a mode do not. We tested this by studying whole-cell and single-channel calcium currents in neonatal rat and adult(More)
Effects of extracellular pH on the sodium current (INa) of single rat ventricular cells were examined under conditions of voltage clamp and internal perfusion. In this way, pHi was controlled while pHo was changed. The combined suction pipette-microelectrode method was used. The suction pipette passed current and perfused the cell's interior; the(More)
The amplitude and phase of both stimulus-frequency and distortion-product emissions have been measured in healthy human ears. In some ears it is possible to model acoustic distortion products (DPs) generated by low-to-moderate stimulus levels as the vector sum of two components originating from distinct regions of the cochlea, one from the f2 place and the(More)