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Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) encode the accessory viral protein X (Vpx) known to be incorporated into virions in amounts comparable to those of the Gag proteins. The localization of Vpx within SIVmac-infected HUT-78 cells and SIVmac virions was studied by immunoelectron microscopy. Vpx appeared to be(More)
We have proposed that inappropriate induction of programmed cell death (PCD) or apoptosis, a physiological cell-suicide process, may play a role in the pathogenesis of AIDS. This model has been supported by several reports of abnormal levels of PCD in vitro in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons. To(More)
To test whether the promoters of two immediate-early genes from frog virus 3 were similar in nucleotide sequence, we have cloned and sequenced an immediate-early gene encoding an infected-cell mRNA of 489 kilodaltons (ICR489) and have shown that the protein product of this gene is approximately 46 kilodaltons. The 5' and 3' ends of the transcripts from this(More)
A library of cloned fragments representing nearly the entire frog virus 3 (FV 3) genome (99.65%) has been constituted. Individual plasmid recombinants, labeled by nick-translation, were hybridized to Southern blots of genomic FV 3 DNA fragments obtained with XbaI, HindIII, SmaI, and SalI. From these results physical maps were generated and the distribution(More)
The infection of macaque monkeys by attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus can vaccinate against pathogenic molecular clones and isolates of the same virus. The correlates of this potent protective immunity are not fully understood but may be the key to an effective AIDS vaccine for humans. Aiming to determine whether host immune responses to envelope(More)
Various studies have reported that primary human immunodeficiency viruses seem to be more refractory to neutralization by HIV-positive sera than T cell line-adapted strains. In this study we also show that adaptation of the HIV-1SF-2 strain, produced in PBMCs, to the cell line CEM-SS renders this isolate sensitive to neutralization by almost all the sera(More)
4-(Arylthio)-pyridin-2(1H)-ones variously substituted in their 3-, 5-, and 6-positions have been synthesized as a new series of 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT)-pyridinone hybrid molecules. Biological studies revealed that some of them show potent HIV-1 specific reverse transcriptase inhibitory properties. Compounds 16 and 7c, the(More)
In the course of structure-activity relationships on rebeccamycin analogues, a series of compounds bearing a halogenoacetyl substituent were synthesized with the expectation of increasing the interaction with DNA, possibly via covalent reaction with the double helix. Two rebeccamycin analogues bearing an acetyl instead of a bromoacetyl substituent were(More)
Intravenous drug abusers represent a high risk group for HIV infection in Europe and North America. Although the use of blood-contaminated needles undoubtedly constitutes the main factor of transmission of the virus, an effect of the drug itself either on the immune system or on virus replication, thus favouring the initiation of the infection, may not be(More)
Bromo analogues of the natural metabolite rebeccamycin with and without a methyl substituent on the imide nitrogen were synthesized. The effects of the drugs on protein kinase C, the binding to DNA, and the effect on topoisomerase I were determined. The drugs' uptake and their antiproliferative activities against P388 leukemia cells sensitive and resistant(More)