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Angiotensinogen, the precursor molecule for angiotensins I, II and III, and the enzymes renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and aminopeptidases A and N may all be synthesised within the brain. Angiotensin (Ang) AT(1), AT(2) and AT(4) receptors are also plentiful in the brain. AT(1) receptors are found in several brain regions, such as the(More)
Angiotensin II acts within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to help mediate a number of autonomic and endocrine responses. Evidence is sparse in regard to the particular neuronal cell groups that exhibit angiotensin II type 1 receptors within the PVN, and does not exist in relation to specified efferent neuronal populations in the nucleus. In(More)
In addition to its traditional role as a circulating hormone, angiotensin is also involved in local functions through the activity of tissue renin-angiotensin systems that occur in many organs, including the brain. In the brain, both systemic and presumptive neurally derived angiotensin and angiotensin metabolites act through specific receptors to modulate(More)
Recent evidence demonstrates that the fragment of angiotensin II, angiotensin II (3-8) termed angiotensin IV, binds with high affinity to a specific binding site, the AT(4) receptor. Intracerebroventricular injection of AT(4) receptor agonists improves the performance of rats in passive avoidance and spatial learning paradigms. AT(4) receptors and(More)
Central administration of angiotensin IV (Ang IV) or its analogues enhance performance of rats in passive avoidance and spatial memory paradigms. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bolus injection of two distinct AT4 ligands, Nle1-Ang IV or LVV-haemorphin-7, on spatial learning in the Barnes circular maze. Mean number of days(More)
In order to identify likely sites of action in insulin in rat brain we have used the technique of in vitro autoradiography and computerized densitometry to map, characterize, and quantify its receptors in coronal and sagittal sections. A discrete and characteristic distribution of insulin receptor binding was demonstrated, with specific binding representing(More)
1. The lamina terminalis, a region of the brain with a high concentration of angiotensin AT1 receptors, consists of three distinct nuclei, the median preoptic nucleus, the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). These latter two regions lack a blood-brain and detect changes in plasma angiotensin (Ang) II concentration and(More)
The distribution of angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors in the human central nervous system has been mapped and is reviewed here. The results discussed provide the anatomical basis for inferences regarding the physiological role of angiotensin in the human brain. The distribution of the AT2 receptor is very restricted in the human brain and shows a high(More)
BACKGROUND The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) functions as both a circulating endocrine system and a tissue paracrine/autocrine system. As a circulating peptide, angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a prominent role in blood-pressure control and body fluid and electrolyte balance by acting on the AT1 receptor in the brain and peripheral tissues. As a(More)
The concept of 'command neurons', whereby single neurons mediate complex and complementary motor functions to generate a stereotyped behaviour, is well developed in invertebrate physiology. The term has also been adopted more recently to explain the neural basis of 'fight or flight'. In this study we have investigated the possibility that single lateral(More)