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The obligate intracellular pathogen Leishmania major survives and multiplies in professional phagocytes. The evasion strategy to circumvent killing by host phagocytes and establish a productive infection is poorly understood. Here we report that the virulent inoculum of Leishmania promastigotes contains a high ratio of annexin A5-binding apoptotic(More)
To elucidate whether the fraction of CD28(-) T cells within the CD4(+) T-cell population is a major source of Th1-like and proinflammatory cytokine production driving Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) granuloma formation, we analyzed the phenotype and functional characteristics of peripheral blood CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells and of T cells in granulomatous lesions of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether a specific cytokine pattern (type 1 [Th1] or type 2 [Th2]) predominates in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), by evaluating interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) expression in different compartments of the body (i.e., biopsied nasal mucosal tissue [NBS], bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid, and peripheral blood [PB])(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate cytokine production patterns of T cell lines (TCL) from patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). METHODS Short-term polyclonal TCL were generated from peripheral blood of patients with CSS or Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and healthy controls (HC). TCL were established in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and(More)
Macrophages (MF) are the final host cells for multiplication of the intracellular parasite Leishmania major (L. major). However, polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN), not MF, are the first leukocytes that migrate to the site of infection and encounter the parasites. Our previous studies indicated that PMN phagocytose but do not kill L. major.(More)
BACKGROUND Lack of CD28 expression on peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells has been reported in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), suggesting a pathogenetic role of CD28- T cells in WG. METHODS Ten patients with WG and six with sarcoidosis (disease control) were analysed. Fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis was used to detect(More)
Expansion of circulating CD28- T-cells reminiscent of effector memory T-cells (T(EM)) has been reported in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) recently. To investigate the role of T(EM) in WG, we analyzed the expression of the activating NK-receptor NKG2D and its ligand MIC on circulating T(EM) and in granulomatous lesions, respectively. NKG2D was anomalously(More)
We present a new adaptive genuinely multidimensional method within the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin method. The discontinuous evolution Galerkin (DEG) method couples a discontinuous Galerkin formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensional hyperbolic systems, such that(More)