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During development of the retinocollicular projection in mouse, retinal axons initially overshoot their future termination zones (TZs) in the superior colliculus (SC). The formation of TZs is initiated by interstitial branching at topographically appropriate positions. Ephrin-As are expressed in a decreasing posterior-to-anterior gradient in the SC, and(More)
A fundamental problem in the study of cortical development is the extent to which the formation and refinement of synaptic circuitry depends upon sensory experience. The barrel cortex is a useful model system to study experience-dependent cortical development because there is a simple mapping of individual whiskers to the corresponding barrel columns in the(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to influence the development of the rodent barrel field by affecting the patterning of thalamic axons in the somatic sensory cortex. To determine whether this is a direct effect on thalamocortical neurones, we analyzed primary thalamic cultures taken from E15 mouse embryos. We show that 5-HT enhances neurite outgrowth of(More)
Neuronal activity elicits metabolic and vascular responses, during which oxygen is first consumed and then supplied to the tissue via an increase in cerebral blood flow. Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of blood and tissue oxygen (To₂) responses following neuronal activity is crucial for understanding the physiological basis of functional(More)
The phospholipase C-beta1 (PLC-beta1) signalling pathway, activated via metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), is implicated in activity-dependent development of the cerebral cortex, as both PLC-beta1 and mGluR5 knockout mice exhibit disrupted barrel formation in somatosensory cortex. To characterize the effects of this signalling system on development(More)
Most patients with N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor antibody encephalitis develop seizures but the epileptogenicity of the antibodies has not been investigated in vivo. Wireless electroencephalogram transmitters were implanted into 23 C57BL/6 mice before left lateral ventricle injection of antibody-positive (test) or healthy (control) immunoglobulin G. Mice(More)
Synaptotagmin is a synaptic vesicle specific protein that binds calcium and phospholipids in vitro and is required for calcium-regulated fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. We have examined the possible requirement for synaptotagmin in axonal outgrowth by following neuronal development in Drosophila embryos deficient for the(More)
Most patients with N-methyl D-aspartate-receptor antibody encephalitis develop seizures but the epileptogenicity of the antibodies has not been investigated in vivo. Wireless electroencephalogram transmitters were implanted into 23 C57BL/6 mice before left lateral ventricle injection of antibody-positive (test) or healthy (control) immunoglobulin G. Mice(More)
After emerging to the solar surface, the Sun's magnetic field displays a complex and intricate evolution. The evolution of the surface field is important for several reasons. One is that the surface field, and its dynamics, sets the boundary condition for the coronal and heliospheric magnetic fields. Another is that the surface evolution gives us insight(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to in¯uence the development of the rodent barrel ®eld by affecting the patterning of thalamic axons in the somatic sensory cortex. To determine whether this is a direct effect on thalamocortical neurones, we analyzed primary thalamic cultures taken from E15 mouse embryos. We show that 5-HT enhances neurite outgrowth of(More)
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