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Z-DNA is produced in a long genomic DNA by Z-DNA binding proteins, through formation of two B-Z junctions with the extrusion of one base pair from each junction. To answer the question of how Z-DNA binding proteins induce B-Z transitions in CG-rich segments while maintaining the B-conformation of surrounding segments, we investigated the kinetics and(More)
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in a variety of cold-adapted (psychrophilic) organisms to promote survival at subzero temperatures by binding to ice crystals and decreasing the freezing temperature of body fluids. The type III AFPs are small globular proteins that consist of one α-helix, three 3(10)-helices, and two β-strands. Sialic acids play(More)
The quaternary-amino-ethyl 1 (QAE1) isoforms of type III antifreeze proteins (AFPs) prevent the growth of ice crystals within organisms living in polar regions. We determined the antifreeze activity of wild-type and mutant constructs of the Japanese notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongates Kner) AFP8 (nfeAFP8) and characterized the structural and dynamics(More)
The Zα domains of human ADAR1 (ZαADAR1) bind to Z-DNA via interaction mediated by the α3-core and β-hairpin. Five residues in the α3 helix and four residues in the β-hairpin play important roles in Zα function, forming direct or water-mediated hydrogen bonds with DNA backbone phosphates or interacting hydrophobically with DNA bases. To understand the roles(More)
The Z-DNA binding domain of human ADAR1 (Zα(ADAR1)) preferentially binds Z-DNA rather than B-DNA with high binding affinity. Here, we have carried out chemical shift perturbation and backbone dynamics studies of Zα(ADAR1) in the free form and in complex with three DNA duplexes, d(CGCGCG)(2), d(CACGTG)(2), and d(CGTACG)(2). This study reveals that Zα(ADAR1)(More)
Using duplex DNA-AuNP aggregates, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, SQUAMOSA Promoter-binding-Like protein 12 (SPL-12), was directly determined by SPL-12-duplex DNA interaction-based colorimetric actions of DNA-Au assemblies. In order to prepare duplex DNA-Au aggregates, thiol-modified DNA 1 and DNA 2 were attached onto the surface of AuNPs,(More)
Z-DNA binding proteins (ZBPs) play important roles in RNA editing, innate immune response and viral infection. Structural and biophysical studies show that ZBPs initially form an intermediate complex with B-DNA for B-Z conversion. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of Z-DNA binding and B-Z transition is still lacking, due to the absence(More)
Human ADAR1, which has two left-handed Z-DNA binding domains, preferentially binds Z-DNA rather than B-DNA with a high binding affinity. Z-DNA can be induced in long genomic DNA by Z-DNA binding proteins through the formation of two B-Z junctions with the extrusion of one base pair from each junction. We performed NMR experiments on complexes of Zα(ADAR1)(More)