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Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has evolved toward the use of many small radiation fields, or "beamlets," to increase the resolution of the intensity map. The size of smaller beamlets can be typically about 1-5 cm2. Therefore small ionization chambers (IC) with sensitive volumes < or = 0.1 cm3 are generally used for dose verification of IMRT(More)
Absolute dosimetry with ionization chambers of the narrow photon fields used in stereotactic techniques and IMRT beamlets is constrained by lack of electron equilibrium in the radiation field. It is questionable that stopping-power ratio in dosimetry protocols, obtained for broad photon beams and quasi-electron equilibrium conditions, can be used in the(More)
The purpose of this paper is to assess the feasibility of delivering intensity- and energy-modulated electron radiation treatment (MERT) by a photon multileaf collimator (xMLC) and to evaluate the improvements obtained in shallow head and neck (HN) tumors. Four HN patient cases covering different clinical situations were planned by MERT, which used an(More)
PURPOSE The authors present a hybrid direct multileaf collimator (MLC) aperture optimization model exclusively based on sequencing of patient imaging data to be implemented on a Monte Carlo treatment planning system (MC-TPS) to allow the explicit radiation transport simulation of advanced radiotherapy treatments with optimal results in efficient times for(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To evaluate the feasibility of using a photon MLC (xMLC) for modulated electron radiotherapy treatment (MERT) as an alternative to conventional post-mastectomy chest wall (CW) irradiation. A Monte Carlo (MC) based planning system was developed to overcome the inaccuracy of the 'pencil beam' algorithm. MC techniques are known to(More)
The purpose of this study was to present a Monte-Carlo (MC)-based optimization procedure to improve conventional treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using modulated electron beams alone or combined with modulated photon beams, to be delivered by a single collimation device, i.e. a photon multi-leaf collimator (xMLC) already(More)
Intrahepatic arterioportal fistula (IAPF) is a rare cause of portal hypertension in young children. We report the case of a 2-year-old girl with severe undernutrition, chronic watery diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding because of a congenital intrahepatic arterioportal fistula. Radiographic embolization and surgical ligation of the left hepatic artery(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Absolute dose measurements for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) beamlets is difficult due to the lack of lateral electron equilibrium. Recently we found that the absolute dosimetry in the penumbra region of the IMRT beamlet, can suffer from significant errors (Capote et al., Med Phys 31 (2004) 2416-2422). This work has the goal(More)
PURPOSE A tool to simulate complete intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments with the Monte Carlo (MC) method has been developed. This application is based on a distribution model to employ as short processing times as possible for an operative verification. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Clinical Primus-Siemens Linac beam was simulated with MC,(More)
V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS When writing a booklet about a topic that is under rapid development such as the clinical introduction of an advanced treatment technique like IMRT, there is a chance that at the time of publication many solutions might already be obsolete or replaced by other approaches. We therefore greatly appreciate very much that we got the latest(More)