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Spatial heterogeneity, habitat connectivity, and rates of movement can have large impacts on the persistence and extinction of infectious diseases. These factors are shown to determine the asymptotic profile of the steady states in a frequency-dependent SIS (susceptible-infectedsusceptible) epidemic model with n patches in which susceptible and infected(More)
To understand the impact of spatial heterogeneity of environment and movement of individuals on the persistence and extinction of a disease, a spatial SIS reaction-diffusion model is studied, with the focus on the existence, uniqueness and particularly the asymptotic profile of the steadystates. First, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined for this(More)
We introduce a pair of compartment models for the honey bee nest-site selection process that lend themselves to analytic methods. The first model represents a swarm of bees deciding whether a site is viable, and the second characterizes its ability to select between two viable sites. We find that the one-site assessment process has two equilibrium states: a(More)
Long-distance dispersal (LDD) events, although rare for most plant species, can strongly influence population and community dynamics. Animals function as a key biotic vector of seeds and thus, a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of how individual animal behaviors scale to dispersal patterns at different spatial scales is a question of critical(More)
We examine the influence of canopy partitioning on the outcome of competition between two plant species that interact only by mutually shading each other. This analysis is based on a Kolmogorov-type canopy partitioning model for plant species with clonal growth form and fixed vertical leaf profiles (Vance and Nevai in J. Theor. Biol., 2007, to appear). We(More)
Can a difference in the heights at which plants place their leaves, a pattern we call canopy partitioning, make it possible for two competing plant species to coexist? To find out, we examine a model of clonal plants living in a nonseasonal environment that relates the dynamical behavior and competitive abilities of plant populations to the structural and(More)
Dengue is a re-emergent vector-borne disease affecting large portions of the world's population living in the tropics and subtropics. The virus is transmitted through the bites of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and it is widely believed that these bites occur primarily in the daytime. The transmission of dengue is a complicated process, and one of the(More)
Models of strictly rational choice assume that decision-makers evaluate options on relevant dimensions, assign fixed values to options, and then make consistent choices based on these values. If so, recent experience would have no impact on preference. But, recent events change an animal’s state, and preference may change accordingly. We explore how state(More)
Decision makers who minimize costly errors should flexibly adjust the way they trade off competing demands, depending on their current state. We explore how state (amount of hoarded food) affects willingness to take extra predation risk to obtain larger food rewards, particularly in animals that may overemphasize safety. Assuming a sigmoid fitness function,(More)
How do spatial heterogeneity, habitat connectivity, and different movement rates among subpopulations combine to influence the observed spatial patterns of an infectious disease? To find out, we formulated and analyzed a discrete-time SIS patch model. Patch differences in local disease transmission and recovery rates characterize whether patches are(More)