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The first mammalian examples of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family to be characterized, hENT1 and hENT2, were passive transporters located predominantly in the plasma membranes of human cells. We now report the functional characterization of members of a third subgroup of the family, from human and mouse, which differ profoundly in their(More)
The concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) protein family in humans is represented by three members, hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. hCNT3, a Na+/nucleoside symporter, transports a broad range of physiological purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as well as anticancer and antiviral nucleoside drugs, and belongs to a different CNT subfamily than hCNT1/2.(More)
3'-Deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer used to identify proliferating tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to characterize FLT transport by human nucleoside transporters (hNTs) and to determine the role of hNTs for FLT uptake in various human cancer cell lines. FLT binding to hNTs was monitored by the(More)
2-Chloro-9-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl)adenine (Cl-F-ara-A, clofarabine), a purine nucleoside analog with structural similarity to 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (Cl-dAdo, cladribine) and 9-beta-d-arabinofuranosyl-2-fluoroadenine (F-ara-A, fludarabine), has activity in adult and pediatric leukemias. Mediated transport of the purine nucleoside(More)
The human (h) and rat (r) equilibrative (Na(+)-independent) nucleoside transporters (ENTs) hENT1, rENT1, hENT2, and rENT2 belong to a family of integral membrane proteins with 11 transmembrane domains (TMs) and are distinguished functionally by differences in sensitivity to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine and coronary vasoactive drugs. Structurally,(More)
NupG from Escherichia coli is the archetype of a family of nucleoside transporters found in several eubacterial groups and has distant homologues in eukaryotes, including man. To facilitate investigation of its molecular mechanism, we developed methods for expressing an oligohistidine-tagged form of NupG both at high levels (>20% of the inner membrane(More)
The human equilibrative nucleoside transporters hENT1 and hENT2 (each with 456 residues) are 40% identical in amino acid sequence and contain 11 putative transmembrane helices. Both transport purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and are distinguished functionally by a difference in sensitivity to inhibition by nanomolar concentrations of(More)
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENT) 1 and 2 differ in that hENT1 is inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of dipyridamole and dilazep, whereas hENT2 is 2 and 3 orders of magnitude less sensitive, respectively. When a yeast expression plasmid containing the hENT1 cDNA was randomly mutated and screened by phenotypic complementation in(More)
Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1) mediates active transport of nucleosides and anticancer and antiviral nucleoside drugs across cell membranes by coupling influx to the movement of Na(+) down its electrochemical gradient. The two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique was used to measure steady-state and presteady-state currents of(More)