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The heritability of smoking initiation (SI) and number of cigarettes smoked (NC) was determined in 3657 Dutch twin pairs. For SI a heritability of 36% was found and for NC of 51%. Both SI and NC were also significantly influenced by environmental factors shared by family members. The etiological factors that influence these traits partly overlap. Linkage(More)
In a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescent and young adult twins, their parents and their siblings, questionnaire data were collected on depression, anxiety and correlated personality traits, such as neuroticism. Data were collected by mailed surveys in 1991, 1993, 1995 and 1997. A total of 13,717 individuals from 3344 families were included in the study.(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine whether regular exercise is associated with anxiety, depression and personality in a large population-based sample as a function of gender and age. METHODS The sample consisted of adolescent and adult twins and their families (N=19,288) who participated in the study on lifestyle and health from The Netherlands Twin Registry(More)
BACKGROUND The association between life events and anxious depression might be due to causality or to gene-environment correlation. We examined unidirectional and reciprocal causality and a gene-environment correlation model, in which genes that influence the vulnerability for anxious depression also increase the risk of exposure to life events. The effect(More)
Identification of genes causing variation in daytime and nighttime respiration rates could advance our understanding of the basic molecular processes of human respiratory rhythmogenesis. This could also serve an important clinical purpose, because dysfunction of such processes has been identified as critically important in sleep disorders. We performed a(More)
Some years ago, Beem (1993, 1995) described a program for fitting two regression lines with an unknown change point (Segcurve). He suggested that such models are useful for the analysis of a variety of phenomena and gave an example of an application to the study of strategy shifts in a mental rotation task. This technique has also proven to be very fruitful(More)
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