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Theory predicts (1) that mixed-mating systems (i.e. reproduction through both selfing and outcrossing) should usually not evolve and (2) that reproducing simultaneous hermaphrodites should be in a conflict over the preferred sexual role (The Hermaphrodite's Dilemma). In an in vitro system with the endoparasitic cestode Schistocephalus solidus, a(More)
We investigated whether spatial differences in belowground niches between shallow- and deep-rooted species result in increased resource uptake and drought resistance in agricultural grassland communities. We injected the tracers 15N and rubidium (Rb) into the soil and measured tracer uptake from 5 and 35 cm soil depth in monocultures and mixtures containing(More)
There is increasing interest in how resource utilisation in grassland ecosystems is affected by changes in plant diversity and abiotic conditions. Research to date has mainly focussed on aboveground responses and there is limited insight into belowground processes. The aim of this study was to test a number of assumptions for the valid use of the trace(More)
Symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is the most important external N source in organic systems. Our objective was to compare symbiotic N2 fixation of clover grown in organically and conventionally cropped grass-clover leys, while taking into account nutrient supply gradients. We studied leys of a 30-year-old field experiment over 2 years in order to compare(More)
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