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Theory predicts (1) that mixed-mating systems (i.e. reproduction through both selfing and outcrossing) should usually not evolve and (2) that reproducing simultaneous hermaphrodites should be in a conflict over the preferred sexual role (The Hermaphrodite's Dilemma). In an in vitro system with the endoparasitic cestode Schistocephalus solidus, a(More)
Trifolium repens L. was grown to test the following hypotheses: when P is deficient (i) N2 fixation decreases as a result of the plant's adaptation to the low N demand, regulated by an N feedback mechanism, and (ii) the decrease in the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves does not limit N2 fixation. Severe P deficiency prevented nodulation or stopped(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Molecular experiments suggest that the regulation of the biosynthesis of condensed tannin (CT) is sensitive to the presence of plant enemies. The enemy-specific response of CT concentrations to simulated attacks by pathogenic fungi, bacteria or herbivores was studied in Onobrychis viciifolia grown at four levels of nutrient availability.(More)
We investigated whether spatial differences in belowground niches between shallow- and deep-rooted species result in increased resource uptake and drought resistance in agricultural grassland communities. We injected the tracers 15N and rubidium (Rb) into the soil and measured tracer uptake from 5 and 35 cm soil depth in monocultures and mixtures containing(More)
Elevated atmospheric pCO(2) increases the C-availability for plants and thus leads to a comparable increase in plant biomass production and nutrient demand. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered to play an important role in the nutrient uptake of plants as well as to be a significant C-sink. Therefore, an increased colonization of plant roots by(More)
There is increasing interest in how resource utilisation in grassland ecosystems is affected by changes in plant diversity and abiotic conditions. Research to date has mainly focussed on aboveground responses and there is limited insight into belowground processes. The aim of this study was to test a number of assumptions for the valid use of the trace(More)
Symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is the most important external N source in organic systems. Our objective was to compare symbiotic N2 fixation of clover grown in organically and conventionally cropped grass-clover leys, while taking into account nutrient supply gradients. We studied leys of a 30-year-old field experiment over 2 years in order to compare(More)
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