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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and(More)
Humoral or vascular rejection results from a B cell-mediated production of immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody against a transplanted organ, producing immune complex deposition on the vascular endothelium, activation of the complement cascade, generation of endothelial dysfunction, and regional ischemic injury. Antibody-mediated rejection, which may be(More)
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