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PURPOSE Afferent asymmetry of visual function is detectable in both normal and pathologic conditions. With a computerized test, we assessed the variability in measuring afferent asymmetry of the pupillary light reflex, that is, the relative afferent pupillary defect. METHODS In ten normal subjects, pupillary responses to an alternating light stimulus were(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether the relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) remains constant over time in normal subjects. METHODS Seventeen normal subjects were tested with infrared pupillography and automated perimetry in four sessions over 3 years. The changes in RAPD and visual field asymmetry between testing sessions were compared. RESULTS The range(More)
OBJECTIVE To weight the rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated activation of the retinal ganglion cells, which drive the pupil light reflex by varying the light stimulus wavelength, intensity, and duration. DESIGN Experimental study. PARTICIPANTS Forty-three subjects with normal eyes and 3 patients with neuroretinal visual loss. METHODS A novel stimulus(More)
BACKGROUND This study was undertaken to determine the natural history of untreated skull base meningiomas. Although there are reports on the natural history of meningiomas, most series contain only a few cases of meningiomas involving the skull base. Natural history information is important when recommending treatment and evaluating results. METHODS The(More)
Five patients with a chief visual complaint of photophobia were subsequently found to have compressive lesions of the optic chiasm. Visual acuity and visual field deficits were often subtle. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning revealed large suprasellar masses, including three pituitary adenomas, a craniopharyngioma, and a clivus chordoma. Photophobia(More)
The recent discovery of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells that mediate the pupil light reflex has provided new insights into how the pupil responds to different properties of light. These ganglion cells are unique in their ability to transduce light into electrical energy. There are parallels between the electrophysiologic behavior of these cells(More)
PURPOSE Nonvisual light-dependent functions in humans are conveyed mainly by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, which express melanopsin as photopigment. We aimed to identify the effects of circadian phase and sleepiness across 24 hours on various aspects of the pupil response to light stimulation. METHODS We tested 10 healthy adults(More)
In this study, we evaluated the repeatability of pupil responses to colored light stimuli in healthy subjects using a prototype chromatic pupillometer. One eye of 10 healthy subjects was tested twice in the same day using monochromatic light exposure at two selected wavelengths (660 and 470 nm, intensity 300 cd/m(2)) presented continuously for 20 s. Pupil(More)
We compared the pupil responses originating from outer versus inner retinal photoreception between patients with isolated hereditary optic neuropathy (HON, n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 8). Three different testing protocols were used. For the first two protocols, a response function of the maximal pupil contraction versus stimulus light intensity was(More)
BACKGROUND The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim of this study was to examine how age and in vivo(More)