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PTEN is a tumor suppressor with sequence homology to protein tyrosine phosphatases and the cytoskeletal protein tensin. mPTEN-mutant mouse embryos display regions of increased proliferation. In contrast, mPTEN-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit decreased sensitivity to cell death in response to a number of apoptotic stimuli,(More)
The functional impact of recently discovered long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in human cancer remains to be clarified. One long ncRNA which has attracted attention is the Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA termed HOTAIR, a long ncRNA expressed from the developmental HOXC locus located on chromosome 12q13.13. In cooperation with Polycomb complex PRC2, the(More)
Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities(More)
BACKGROUND Productive agriculture needs a large amount of expensive nitrogenous fertilizers. Improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crop plants is thus of key importance. NUE definitions differ depending on whether plants are cultivated to produce biomass or grain yields. However, for most plant species, NUE mainly depends on how plants extract(More)
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in many human cancers, and its expression is reduced or absent in almost half of hepatoma patients. We used the Cre-loxP system to generate a hepatocyte-specific null mutation of Pten in mice (AlbCrePten(flox/flox) mice). AlbCrePten(flox/flox) mice showed massive hepatomegaly and steatohepatitis with triglyceride(More)
Wound healing is essential for maintaining the integrity of multicellular organisms. In every species studied, disruption of an epithelial layer instantaneously generates endogenous electric fields, which have been proposed to be important in wound healing. The identity of signalling pathways that guide both cell migration to electric cues and(More)
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedlings were grown in the presence of cadmium. After 1 week of Cd treatment, a sharp decline in biomass accumulation in the leaves and roots was observed, together with a decrease in the rate of photosynthetic activity due to both Rubisco and chlorophyll degradation and stomata closure. Cadmium induced a significant(More)
BACKGROUND Germ-line and sporadic mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (also known as MMAC or TEP1), which encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase, cause a variety of cancers such as Cowden disease, glioblastoma, endometrial carcinoma and prostatic cancer. PTEN is widely expressed, and Cowden disease consistently affects various organ systems,(More)
The tumor suppressor gene PTEN, which is frequently mutated in human cancers, encodes a lipid phosphatase for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] and antagonizes phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase. Primordial germ cells (PGCs), which are the embryonic precursors of gametes, are the source of testicular teratoma. To elucidate the(More)
Glutamate (Glu) metabolism and amino acid translocation were investigated in the young and old leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) using [15N]ammonium and [2-15N]Glu tracers. Regardless of leaf age, [15N]ammonium assimilation occurred via glutamine synthetase (GS; EC and Glu synthase (ferredoxin [Fd]-GOGAT; EC; NADH-GOGAT; EC(More)