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Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Only one moderately effective therapy exists, albeit with contraindications that exclude 90% of the patients. This medical need contrasts with a high failure rate of more than 1,000 pre-clinical drug candidates for stroke therapies. Thus, there is a need for translatable mechanisms of(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of adherent epithelial cells to a migratory mesenchymal state has been implicated in tumor metastasis in preclinical models. To investigate its role in human cancer, we characterized EMT in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from breast cancer patients. Rare primary tumor cells simultaneously expressed mesenchymal and(More)
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a key regulatory protein in cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation, linking Ca(2+)-troponin C binding with activation of crossbridge reactions with the thin filament. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that myofilament properties as well as changes in intracellular Ca(2+) have a major role in the dynamic(More)
Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and an increase in oxidative stress are both implicated in age-related cardiac remodeling but their precise interrelationship and linkage to underlying molecular and cellular abnormalities remain to be defined. Recent studies indicate that NADPH oxidases are major sources of oxidative(More)
Damaged mitochondria are removed by mitophagy. Although Atg32 is essential for mitophagy in yeast, no Atg32 homologue has been identified in mammalian cells. Here, we show that Bcl-2-like protein 13 (Bcl2-L-13) induces mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy in mammalian cells. First, we hypothesized that unidentified mammalian mitophagy receptors would(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to sensitization of pain pathways during neuropathic pain, but little is known about the primary sources of ROS production and how ROS mediate pain sensitization. Here, we show that the NADPH oxidase isoform Nox4, a major ROS source in somatic cells, is expressed in a subset of nonpeptidergic nociceptors and(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by immunological cells is known to cause damage to pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated in the last decade has shown, however, that ROS (and redox signals) functionally regulate different cellular pathways in the host-pathogen interaction. These especially affect (i) pathogen entry through protein redox(More)
The GATA4, 5 and 6 subfamily of transcription factors are potent transactivators of transcription expressed within the precardiac mesoderm. However, little is known of the immediate downstream targets of GATA-factor regulation during the earliest stages of cardiogenesis. Using the P19-CL6 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line as an in vitro model of(More)
NADPH oxidase family enzymes (or NOXs) are the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are implicated in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases. These enzymes appear to be especially important in the modulation of redox-sensitive signalling pathways that underlie key cellular functions such as growth, differentiation, migration and(More)
The mammalian heart has a remarkable regenerative capacity for a short period of time after birth, after which the majority of cardiomyocytes permanently exit cell cycle. We sought to determine the primary postnatal event that results in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle arrest. We hypothesized that transition to the oxygen-rich postnatal environment is the upstream(More)