Learn More
Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater(More)
Despite prevention efforts, childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. This ethnographic study seeks to enhance understandings of the sociocultural dimensions of childhood obesity and inform prevention efforts. Using participant observation, interviews, and life histories, this research probes the sociocultural roots of(More)
In December 1997, 170 hemorrhagic fever-associated deaths were reported in Garissa District, Kenya. Laboratory testing identified evidence of acute Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Of the 171 persons enrolled in a cross-sectional study, 31(18%) were anti-RVFV immunoglobulin (Ig) M positive. An age-adjusted IgM antibody prevalence of 14% was estimated for the(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has become the leading bacterial cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks on cruise ships. Investigation of recent outbreaks of ETEC gastroenteritis on 3 cruise ships indicated that all were associated with consuming beverages with ice cubes on board the ship (relative risk [RR], 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.9,(More)
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has established a syndromic surveillance system that monitors emergency department visits to detect disease outbreaks early. Routinely collected chief complaint information is transmitted electronically to the health department daily and analyzed for temporal and spatial aberrations. Respiratory,(More)
BACKGROUND While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM), a large number of HIV infections among this population go unrecognized. We examined the association between disclosing to their medical providers (eg, physicians, nurses, physician(More)
Pyrethroid pesticides were applied via ground spraying to residential neighborhoods in New York City during July-September 2000 to control mosquito vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Case reports link pyrethroid exposure to asthma exacerbations, but population-level effects on asthma from large-scale mosquito control programs have not been assessed. We(More)
OBJECTIVE In its 2006 HIV testing guidelines, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended routine testing in all US medical settings. Given that many physicians do not routinely test for HIV, the objective of this study was to summarize our current understanding of why US physicians do not offer HIV testing. DESIGN A comprehensive(More)
OBJECTIVES We estimated the number of deaths attributable to social factors in the United States. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search for all English-language articles published between 1980 and 2007 with estimates of the relation between social factors and adult all-cause mortality. We calculated summary relative risk estimates of mortality, and we(More)
Drawing from insights into the variability of complex biologic systems we propose that the health of human populations reflects the interrelationship between underlying vulnerabilities (determined by population-level social and economic factors; e.g., income distribution) and capacities (determined by population-level salutary resources, e.g., social(More)