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Thirty-four patients with advanced Parkinson's disease participated in a prospective 24-month double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fetal nigral transplantation. Patients were randomized to receive bilateral transplantation with one or four donors per side or a placebo procedure. The primary end point was change between baseline and final visits in(More)
OBJECTIVE Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts potent trophic influence on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to confirm initial clinical benefits observed in a small, open-label trial using intraputamenal (Ipu) infusion of recombinant human GDNF (liatermin). METHODS Thirty-four PD(More)
The biochemical bases of the placebo effect are still incompletely known. We show here that the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease is due, at least in part, to the release of dopamine in the striatum. We propose that the placebo effect might be related to reward mechanisms. The expectation of reward (i.e. clinical benefit) seems to be particularly(More)
Preclinical studies suggest ropinirole (a D2/D3 dopamine agonist) may be neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD), and a pilot clinical study using (18)F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a slower loss of striatal dopamine storage with ropinirole compared with levodopa. This prospective, 2-year, randomized, double-blind, multinational(More)
BACKGROUND There is an urgent need for therapies that slow or reverse the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotrophic factors can improve the function of degenerating neurons and protect against further neurodegeneration, and gene transfer might be a means to deliver effectively these factors to the brain. The aim of this study was to assess the(More)
Recent evidence indicates that the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease is mediated by the release of dopamine in the dorsal striatum. Interestingly, there is also placebo-induced dopamine release in the ventral striatum, which establishes a connection between the placebo effect and reward mechanisms. Specifically, we propose that placebo responses are(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive disorder with no known cure. We report two-year postoperative positron emission tomography (PET) data from 7 HD patients who underwent intrastriatal fetal transplantation. Patients showed widespread reductions in glucose uptake with no significant change over 2 years. Dopamine receptor binding was significantly(More)
Peak-dose dyskinesias are abnormal movements that usually occur 1 h after oral administration of levodopa, and often complicate chronic treatment of Parkinson's disease. We investigated by PET with [11C]raclopride whether Parkinson's disease progression modifies the striatal changes in synaptic dopamine levels induced by levodopa administration, and whether(More)
Using the ability of [11C]raclopride to compete with dopamine for D(2)/D(3) receptors, we investigated by positron emission tomography the effect of placebo (saline) injection on dopamine release in the ventral striatum of patients with Parkinson's disease. We found evidence for placebo-induced dopamine release of similar magnitude to that reported in(More)