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The differentiation of the seminiferous epithelium was studied in 20-120-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Body weights and the weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and kidneys were determined. The best way of defining the development of the testis was to denote the most differentiated germ cell present. Spermatogenesis is complete at 56 days of age, but the(More)
Exposure of the respiratory tract to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute local inflammation and tissue injury associated with the various deliveries of LPS. To determine potential association of local inflammatory responses with respiratory tract dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells, production of inflammatory mediators, lung hyperinflation(More)
Leukocyte activation and production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species are important in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. The present study investigated acute lung hyperinflation, edema, and lung inflammation 4 h after an intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000(More)
RATIONALE Clinical studies show that flexible dosing (maintenance and symptom-driven dose adjustments) of budesonide and formoterol (BUD/FORM) improves control of asthma exacerbations as compared to fixed maintenance dosing protocols (maintenance therapy) even when the latter utilize higher BUD/FORM doses. This suggests that dose-response relationships for(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding frequency on total tract digestibility and plasma glucose, insulin, urea, gastrin and cortisol concentrations at rest and following exercise in seven Standardbred horses in race training. The horses were fed every 12 h (twice a day, 2TD) and every 4 h (six times a day, 6TD) for 25 days, in a(More)
Emphysema, a leading cause of respiratory disability and mortality in humans, is characterized by destruction of alveolar walls and enlargement of airspaces. Animal studies are critical in understanding the pathogenesis of emphysema. However, current measurements of airspace enlargement and emphysema in small laboratory animals are labor intensive and may(More)
Although the anti-inflammatory role of the A2a receptor is well established, controversy remains with regard to the therapeutic value for A2a agonists in treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, also as a result of unwanted A2a-mediated cardiovascular effects. In this paper, we describe the discovery and characterization of a new, potent and selective A2a(More)
A class of potent, nonsteroidal, selective indazole ether-based glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SGRMs) was developed for the inhaled treatment of respiratory diseases. Starting from an orally available compound with demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in rat, a soft-drug strategy was implemented to ensure rapid elimination of drug candidates to(More)
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