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The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity. These(More)
Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising(More)
BACKGROUND Although there is substantial evidence of differential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in both generalized and abdominal obesity, consistent trends in obesity-related HPA axis perturbations have yet to be identified. OBJECTIVES To systematically review the existing literature on HPA activity in obesity, identify possible(More)
OBJECTIVE Rates of weight-based stigmatization have steadily increased over the past decade. The psychological and physiological consequences of weight stigma remain understudied. METHODS This study examined the effects of experimentally manipulated weight stigma on the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in 110 female(More)
Craving of unhealthy food is a common target of self-regulation, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In this study, participants used cognitive reappraisal to regulate their desire to consume idiosyncratically craved or not craved energy-dense foods, and neural activity during regulation was compared with each other and with the(More)
We report scalp arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in which we performed embolization and examine the treatment method. The subjects were four cases of scalp AVF treated by embolization. All cases were male and three had a past history of scalp injury. As the feeding artery, we found a single artery in one case and multiple arteries in three cases. In three(More)
Antiarrhythmic effects of the new drug KT-362, which was reported to suppress Na and Ca currents of cardiac cells and also to suppress intracellular Ca release in isolated smooth muscle preparations, were examined using two-stage coronary ligation-, digitalis- and adrenaline-induced ventricular arrhythmias in the dog. Intravenous KT-362 at 10 mg/kg(More)
In rabbit aorta, pretreatment with KT-362 (KT; 10(-6) and 10(-5) M) inhibited contractile responses to norepinephrine (NE; 3 X 10(-9)-10(-5) M) and methoxamine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) but failed to affect responses to potassium (10-70 mM). KT (10(-5) M) partially inhibited Ca++-induced contractions in K+-depolarized aorta pre-equilibrated in a Ca++-free medium.(More)
Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory(More)
Effect of a novel azulene derivative KT1-32 on gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was studied to elucidate its mucosal defensive mechanisms underlying the antiulcer action. The GMBF was measured by two methods which were based on heat clearance and laser Doppler velocimetry in the rat. Intravenous administration of KT1-32 produced a dose-dependent increase(More)