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The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity. These(More)
Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory(More)
Long-term exposure to stress and its physiological mediators, in particular cortisol, may lead to impaired telomere maintenance. In this study, we examine if greater cortisol responses to an acute stressor and/or dysregulated patterns of daily cortisol secretion are associated with shorter telomere length. Twenty-three postmenopausal women comprising(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of Bax and Bak, which act to permeabilize the mitochondrial membrane, is an essential step in the cell death response and therefore in the suppression of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms that regulate activation are poorly understood. METHODS Bax and Bak activation (conformational change and dimerization) was monitored in Rat-1(More)
OBJECTIVE Weight discrimination is associated with increased risk of obesity. The mechanism of this relationship is unknown, but being overweight is a highly stigmatized condition and may be a source of chronic stress that contributes to the development and pathophysiology of obesity. The objective of this study was to test whether weight stigma is(More)
OBJECTIVE Rates of weight-based stigmatization have steadily increased over the past decade. The psychological and physiological consequences of weight stigma remain understudied. METHODS This study examined the effects of experimentally manipulated weight stigma on the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in 110 female(More)
Glioblastoma, the most intractable cerebral tumor, is highly lethal. Recent studies suggest that cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) have the capacity to repopulate tumors and mediate radio- and chemoresistance, implying that future therapies may need to turn from the elimination of rapidly dividing, but differentiated, tumor cells to specifically targeting the(More)
We examined pharmacological profiles of KT3-671, 2-propyl-8-oxo-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]- 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-cycloheptimidazole, a newly synthesized nonpeptide angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist in various in vitro and in vivo studies. KT3-671 displaced specific binding of [125I]Sar1 Ile8-AII to AT1 receptor with a Ki value of(More)
BACKGROUND Although there is substantial evidence of differential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in both generalized and abdominal obesity, consistent trends in obesity-related HPA axis perturbations have yet to be identified. OBJECTIVES To systematically review the existing literature on HPA activity in obesity, identify possible(More)
Effect of a novel azulene derivative KT1-32 on gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was studied to elucidate its mucosal defensive mechanisms underlying the antiulcer action. The GMBF was measured by two methods which were based on heat clearance and laser Doppler velocimetry in the rat. Intravenous administration of KT1-32 produced a dose-dependent increase(More)