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The mechanism by which acrylamide (ACR) produces distal axonopathy in humans and laboratory animals is unknown. The possibility that this neuropathy involves deregulation of elements and water in rat peripheral nerve has been investigated. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to measure percentages of water and concentrations (mmol element/kg dry or(More)
Electron probe x-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used to measure water content (percent water) and dry weight elemental concentrations (in millimoles per kilogram) of Na, K, Cl, and Ca in axoplasm and mitochondria of rat optic and tibial nerve myelinated axons. Myelin and cytoplasm of glial cells were also analyzed. Each anatomical compartment exhibited(More)
The electrolyte and water content of cellular and interstitial compartments in the renal papilla of the rat was determined by x-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissue sections. Papillae from rats on ad libitum water were rapidly frozen in a slush of Freon 12, and sectioned in a cryomicrotome at -30 to -40 degrees C. Frozen 0.5-micrometer sections were(More)
Major differences in elemental and water content in cells of rat papillae have been reported by investigators using the frozen hydrated/frozen dried method versus that using external standards for x-ray microanalysis. These differences could not be ascribed to either cryosectioning at warmer temperatures or to the analytical algorithm used by either group.(More)
X-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine concentrations (millimoles of element per kilogram dry weight) of Na, P, Cl, K, and Ca in cellular compartments of frozen, unfixed sections of rat sciatic and tibial nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Five compartments were examined in peripheral nerve (axoplasm, mitochondria, myelin, extraaxonal space,(More)
X-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine the effects of axotomy on distribution and concentration (millimoles of element per kilogram dry weight) of Na, P, Cl, K, and Ca in frozen, unfixed sections of rat sciatic nerve. Elemental concentrations were measured in axoplasm, mitochondria, and myelin at 8, 16, and 48 h after transection in small-,(More)
X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissue sections permits direct quantitative analysis of diffusible elements in defined cellular compartments. Because the sections are hydrated, elemental concentrations can be defined as wet-weight mass fractions. Use of these techniques should also permit determination of water fraction in cellular compartments.(More)
A method is reported for preparing, examining and analysing frozen hydrated tissue sections using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Use of this method permits localization and measurement of water soluble or diffusible elements within the hydrated cell matrix. Since any change in total fresh weight of the specimen will affect the(More)
New specimen handling and analytic techniques for the application of x-ray microanalysis to studies of cell and organ biology have been recently described (Saubermann et al., 1981, J. Cell Biol. 88:257-267). Based on these techniques, absolute quantitative standardization has been established through x-ray analysis of frozen-hydrated and then dried sections(More)
Cryosectioning biological tissue is a critical and difficult step when applied to x-ray microanalysis of diffusible elements. Conventional metal machining theory can explain and predict results obtained by cryosectioning more consistantly than a freeze-thaw model. Temperature of a critical zone where shearing occurs is probably the most important factor for(More)