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BACKGROUND Inflammatory immune activation is an important feature in chronic heart failure (CHF). Little is known about the prognostic importance of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF-receptor 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1/sTNF-R2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD14 receptors (sCD14) in CHF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS In 152 CHF patients (age(More)
BACKGROUND The role of hormonal and cytokine abnormalities in the development of cardiac cachexia remains obscure. METHODS AND RESULTS Healthy control subjects (n=16) and patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), classified clinically as cachectic (8% to 35% weight loss over > or = 6 months before study, n=16) or noncachectic (n=37), were assessed for(More)
BACKGROUND A neural linkage between peripheral abnormalities and the exaggerated exercise responses in chronic heart failure (CHF) was postulated. We studied the ergoreceptors (afferents sensitive to skeletal muscle work) in CHF and whether training can affect their activity. METHODS AND RESULTS In 12 stable CHF patients (ejection fraction [EF] = 26.4%)(More)
Fast breathhold cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become a reference standard for the measurement of cardiac volumes, function, and mass. The implications of this for sample sizes for remodeling studies in heart failure (HF) have not been elucidated. We determined the reproducibility of CMR in HF and calculated the sample size requirements and(More)
AIMS To prospectively compare the agreement of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction by M-mode echocardiography (echo), 2D echo, radionuclide ventriculography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance performed in patients with chronic stable heart failure. It is important to know whether the results of each technique are interchangable, and thereby(More)
AIMS Previous studies have shown an abnormal expression of cellular adhesion molecules and cytokines in chronic heart failure, which may be related to endothelial dysfunction characterizing this syndrome. Our study investigates the effects of physical training on serum activity of some peripheral inflammatory markers associated with endothelial dysfunction,(More)
BACKGROUND Immune activation in patients with chronic heart failure may be secondary to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) action. We investigated the hypothesis that altered gut permeability with bacterial translocation and endotoxaemia would be increased in patients with oedema secondary to congestive heart failure. METHODS We compared 20 patients who had(More)
BACKGROUND Peripheral chemoreceptor hypersensitivity is a feature of abnormal cardiorespiratory reflex control in chronic heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to sympathetic overactivity, attenuated baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and excessive ventilation during exercise. We studied whether augmented peripheral chemosensitivity carries independent(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of exercise training on survival in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. DESIGN Collaborative meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria Randomised parallel group controlled trials of exercise training for at least eight weeks with individual patient data on survival for at least three months.(More)
BACKGROUND Many secondary abnormalities in chronic heart failure (CHF) may reflect physical deconditioning. There has been no prospective, controlled study of the effects of physical training on hemodynamics and autonomic function in CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS In a controlled crossover trial of 8 weeks of exercise training, 17 men with stable moderate to(More)