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In vivo levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, present in the interstitial spaces of brain, have been repeatedly monitored up to 7 days after insertion of a microdialysis probe, designed to induce mechanical trauma to the brain. IL-1 is barely detectable immediately after implantation but over a 24-48 h period a 15-fold increase is seen. In contrast IL-6(More)
The expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and a number of metalloproteases as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-1 (TIMP-1) was analyzed in the central nervous system (CNS) of normal control and multiple sclerosis (MS) cases by immunohistopathology. The expression of t-PA was(More)
Vascular dysfunction is emerging as a key pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been described in AD patient tissue and in vivo AD mouse models. Brain endothelial cells (BECs) are linked together by tight junctional (TJ) proteins, which are a key determinant in restricting the permeability of the BBB. The(More)
We reported previously that accumulation of myelin basic protein (MBP) in foetal brain aggregate cultures is enhanced by supplementation with peritoneal macrophages. The present study demonstrates that the rate of MBP accumulation in macrophage-enriched cultures continues to increase over time unaccompanied by a matching increase in the oligodendrocyte(More)
The demyelinative potential of the cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been investigated in myelinating aggregate brain cell cultures. Treatment of myelinated cultures with these cytokines resulted in a reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP) content. This effect was(More)
The effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production has been examined in adult rat brain microglia. Following treatment of isolated cells in vitro with LPS, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in culture supernatants, determined by bioassay, were increased in a dose-dependent manner. IL-6 was(More)
Alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists, such as prazosin, show promise in treating alcoholism. In rats, prazosin reduces alcohol self-administration and relapse induced by footshock stress and the alpha-2 antagonist yohimbine, but the processes involved in these effects of prazosin are not known. Here, we present studies on the central mechanisms underlying the(More)
The Open University's repository of research publications and other research outputs Polarized P-glycoprotein expression by the immortalised human brain endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, restricts apical-to-basolateral permeability to rhodamine 123 A. (2009). Polarized P-glycoprotein expression by the immortalised human brain endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3,(More)