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Widespread use of DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to differentiate strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to monitor the transmission of tuberculosis has been hampered by the need to culture this slow-growing organism and by the level of technical sophistication needed for RFLP typing. We have developed a simple method which allows(More)
Macrophages (Mphi) play a central role as effector cells in immunity to intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium. Paradoxically, they also provide a habitat for intracellular bacterial survival. This paradoxical role of Mphi remains poorly understood. Here we report that this dual role may emanate from the functional plasticity of Mphi: Whereas Mphi-1(More)
Diagnostic techniques based on PCR have two major problems: false-positive reactions due to contamination with DNA fragments from previous PCRs (amplicons) and false-negative reactions caused by inhibitors that interfere with the PCR. We have improved our previously reported PCR based on the amplification of a fragment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
A simple and economical direct agglutination test for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis is described. Trypsin-treated, Coomassie Brilliant Blue-stained, formalin-preserved promastigotes were used as antigen in re-usable V-well microtitre plates. In 21 patients with recent kala-azar, titres of 1:51200 or higher were found. Cured kala-azar patients(More)
Punch biopsy specimens from Mycobacterium ulcerans disease lesions were used to compare the sensitivities and specificities of direct smear, culture, PCR, and histopathology in making a diagnosis of M. ulcerans disease in a field setting. PCR for the insertion element IS2404 was modified to include uracil-N-glycosylase and deoxyuridine triphosphate instead(More)
As a result of DNA typing of Mycobacterium microti isolates from animals in the United Kingdom and The Netherlands, we diagnosed four human M. microti infections. These are the first M. microti infections among humans to be reported. Three of the patients were immunocompromised and suffered from generalized forms of tuberculosis. The fourth patient was a(More)
Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the mt- sexual agglutinin of Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. Those that blocked the agglutination site were selected. They were divided into two classes dependent upon whether they gave a weak (class A) or clear positive (class B) reaction with mt- flagellar membranes in an ELISA and an indirect immunofluorescence(More)
Thirty-two monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, M. bovis BCG and M. leprae were produced. The spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with sonicated or intact bacilli were fused with Sp2/0-Ag-14 myeloma cells. Many more antibody producing hybridomas were found when M. tuberculosis, rather than M. leprae, was used as the immunogen.(More)
BACKGROUND Bladder instillations with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) are commonly used as immunotherapy for bladder carcinoma. Sometimes patients experience serious systemic side effects, such as sepsis or pneumonitis. Granulomatous hepatitis is a rare serious side effect, which has been considered a hypersensitivity reaction to BCG. PATIENT The first(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 signaling is required for the containment of infections with intracellular microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Leishmania major. To determine the role of IL-1 in the host response to tuberculosis, we infected IL-1 type I receptor-deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) mice, in which IL-1 does not exert effects, with Mycobacterium(More)