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During development of the cerebral cortex, the invasion of thalamic axons and subsequent differentiation of cortical neurons are tightly coordinated. Here we provide evidence that glutamate neurotransmission triggers a critical signaling mechanism involving the activation of phospholipase C-beta1 (PLC-beta1) by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs).(More)
Huntington's disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation of the huntingtin gene and involves progressive motor abnormalities (including chorea), cognitive deficits (dementia) as well as psychiatric symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that environmental enrichment slows the onset and progression of Huntington's disease in(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential neurotrophin and regulation of its expression is complex due to multiple 5' untranslated exons which are separately spliced to a common coding exon to form unique mRNA transcripts. Disruption of BDNF gene expression is a key to the development of symptoms in Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal(More)
Phospholipase C-beta1 (PLC-beta1) is a rate-limiting enzyme implicated in postnatal-cortical development and neuronal plasticity. PLC-beta1 transduces intracellular signals from specific muscarinic, glutamate and serotonin receptors, all of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Here, we present data to show that PLC-beta1 knockout(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) has long been regarded as a disease of the central nervous system, partly due to typical disease symptoms that include loss of motor control, cognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances. However, the huntingtin gene is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. We had previously reported a female-specific(More)
Neuronal heterotopia are seen in various pathologies and are associated with intractable epilepsy. We examined brain tissue from four children with subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different aetiologies: one with severe epilepsy following focal brain trauma at 17 weeks gestation, one with hemimegalencephaly and intractable epilepsy, one(More)
Neuronal differentiation involves extensive rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, including the actin-based microfilament system, and establishment of molecular compartments within the neuron. The intracellular distribution of tropomyosin (Tm) mRNA in vivo and in vitro has been examined and correlated with protein targetting. The mRNAs encoding two Tm isoforms(More)
Receptor-mediated signal transduction is thought to play an important role in neuronal differentiation and the modification of synaptic connections during brain development. The intracellular signalling molecule phospholipase C-beta1 (PLC-beta1), which is activated via specific neurotransmitter receptors, has recently been implicated in activity-dependent(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, involving psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may(More)
Waddington's original description of canalization refers to the ability of an organism to maintain phenotypic fidelity in the face of environmental and/or genetic perturbation. Development of the human brain requires exposure to a 'wild-type' environment-one that supports the optimal set of instructions for development. Recently derived brain structures in(More)