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Metabolic insult results in apoptosis and depletion of mature oligodendrocytes during demyelination. To examine the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) during acute demyelination and remyelination in the adult CNS, we exposed transgenic mice that continuously express IGF-1 (IGF-1 tg) to cuprizone intoxication. Demyelination was observed within the(More)
To study the effects and mechanisms of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on brain myelination in vivo, the morphology of myelinated axons and the expression of myelin specific protein genes have been examined in transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress IGF-I and that those ectopically express IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), a protein that inhibits IGF-I(More)
The somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are synthesized in many organs and tissues, but the specific cells that synthesize them in vivo have not been defined. By in situ hybridization histochemistry, IGF I (somatomedin C) and IGF II messenger RNAs were localized to connective tissues or cells of mesenchymal origin in 14 organs and tissues(More)
In studies of transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exclusively in the CNS, we demonstrated a dramatic increase in cerebellar granule cell number that appeared to be attributable predominantly to enhanced survival. IGF-I anti-apoptotic actions are well established in cultured neurons, but comparable studies in vivo are(More)
The in vivo actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on cerebellum development have been investigated in transgenic (Tg) mice (IGF-II/I Tg mice) in whom an IGF-II promoter-driven IGF-I transgene is highly expressed in cerebellum. Compared to normal littermates, the brains of IGF-II/I Tg mice exhibited overgrowth beginning from the second week of(More)
The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the initiation of myelination have been examined in the posterior portion of anterior commissure of the transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress IGF-I in brain, and those which exhibit ectopic brain expression of IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), an inhibitor of IGF actions. In IGF-I Tg mice the number of(More)
Evidence suggests that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a proinflammatory cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes, contributes a deleterious effect to immune-mediated demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Nevertheless, mouse strains that are normally resistant to EAE induction become(More)
Specific binding proteins (BPs) to somatomedin/insulin-like growth factors (Sm/IGFs) have been identified in conditioned media from a variety of cells in culture. By affinity cross-linking using disuccinimidyl suberate, we have covalently cross-linked radiolabeled somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I (Sm-C/IGF I), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF(More)
The in vivo actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the growth and development of the hippocampal dentate gyrus were investigated in transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-I postnatally in the brain and in normal nontransgenic littermate controls. Stereological analyses of the dentate gyrus were performed by light and electron microscopy on days 7,(More)
Profound impairment in social interaction is a core symptom of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Deficits can include a lack of interest in social contact and low levels of approach and proximity to other children. In this study, a three-chambered choice task was used to evaluate sociability and social novelty preference in five lines of mice(More)