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We examined the organization of descending projections from auditory and adjacent cortical areas to the inferior colliculus (IC) in the rat by using the retrograde and anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase. Small tracer injections were placed into cytologically defined subnuclei of the IC. On the basis of the resulting(More)
The origin of olivocochlear efferents was studied in the rat, the guinea pig, and the bats Rhinolophus, Rhinopoma, Tadarida, and Phylostomus by retrograde labeling with HRP and the fluorescent dye fast blue. In all species with the exception of Rhinolophus rouxi two types of cochlear efferents could be found: small neurons located in the lateral superior(More)
Physiological and morphological parameters of optic nerve lesions followed by functional recovery are discussed in detail. To study functional and/or morphological recovery processes, a recently developed model of the 'graded optic nerve crush' is compared with other models of lesioning. It is concluded that the optic nerve crush model is a valuable tool(More)
Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an indicator of acute cell death in vitro. An increase in tTG protein level is found in postmortem Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains as well as in Huntington's disease. No study revealed tTG in vivo so far. We investigated the concentrations of tTG in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 84 patients using ELISA assays.(More)
The distribution and the projection patterns of olivo-cochlear neurons (OCN) was studied in three species of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, Meriones tristrami, Pachyuromys duprasi) using fluorescent tracers (Fast blue, Diamidino yellow) in double labeling experiments. In all gerbil species up to 1600 retrogradely labeled neurons were found in the superior(More)
In rat and guinea pig, cochlear efferents to the two ears were labeled simultaneously with different fluorescent tracers. It was found that in both species only few (1-3%) olivo-cochlear neurons were double-labeled and project to both cochleae. In most periolivary regions large olivocochlear neurons (OCN) projecting to the ipsilateral and contralateral side(More)
The pattern of commissural connections of the rat auditory cortex (AC) was investigated with injections of wheat germ agglutinated horseradish peroxidase into the AC. Homotopic and heterotopic patches of neurons were retrogradely labeled in the contralateral hemisphere. Each injection labeled neurons at the corresponding contralateral site, i.e. the(More)
Recent theories on the function of arousals from torpor in hibernating mammals focus on the repair of the central nervous system from damage accumulating during prolonged hypothermia. In this framework, we investigated the synaptic ultrastructure in Layer 2 of the frontal cortex from hibernating European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) sacrificed(More)
Fluorescent compounds which are currently used as retrograde tracers were tested in the cat peripheral motor system and compared with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The tracers were either injected into forelimb muscles or applied to the proximal end of transected forelimb nerves. The remaining muscles of the limb has been carefully denervated. Following(More)