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An early transient burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins was recently shown to be required for apoptosis to proceed in various cell lines (Simbulan-Rosenthal, C., Rosenthal, D., Iyer, S., Boulares, H., and Smulson, M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13703-13712) followed by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), catalyzed by caspase-3.(More)
A transient burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins occurs early, prior to commitment to death, in human osteosarcoma cells undergoing apoptosis, followed by caspase-3-mediated cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The generality of this early burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has now been investigated with human HL-60 cells, mouse(More)
BACKGROUND Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was suggested to play a role in endothelial dysfunction that is associated with a number of cardiovascular diseases. We hypothesized that PARP may play an important role in atherogenesis and that its inhibition may attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. (More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a component of the multiprotein DNA replication complex (MRC, DNA synthesome) that catalyzes replication of viral DNA in vitro. PARP poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates 15 of the approximately 40 proteins of the MRC, including DNA polymerase alpha (DNA pol alpha), DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen(More)
The G protein-coupled serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor is primarily recognized for its role in brain neurotransmission, where it mediates a wide variety of functions, including certain aspects of cognition. However, there is significant expression of this receptor in peripheral tissues, where its importance is largely unknown. We have now(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and p53 are two key proteins in the DNA-damage response. Although PARP-1 is known to poly(ADP-ribosyl)ate p53, the role of this modification remains elusive. Here, we identify the major poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated sites of p53 by PARP-1 and find that PARP-1-mediated poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation blocks the interaction between p53(More)
1. The mechanism of toxicity of sulphur mustard was investigated by examining the biochemical effects of the analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in both human Jurkat cells as well as normal human lymphocytes. 2. Exposure of both types of cells to CEES resulted in a marked decrease in the intracellular concentration of the reduced form of glutathione(More)
Airway inflammation is a central feature of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to inflammation by damaging DNA, which, in turn, results in the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and depletion of its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Here we show that prevention of PARP-1(More)
Cordycepin has been shown to interfere with a myriad of molecular processes from RNA elongation to kinase activity, and prevents numerous inflammatory processes in animal models. Here we show in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury that cordycepin prevents airway neutrophilia via a robust blockade of expression of several inflammatory genes,(More)
AIMS The aim of this study was to take a combination of animal and cell culture approaches to examine the individual responses of vascular cells to varying inflammatory factors in order to gain insights on the mechanism(s) by which poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition promotes factors of plaque stability. METHODS AND RESULTS Apolipoprotein(More)