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Several biochemical abnormalities have been described in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The identification of specific gene mutations that cause PD has reinforced the relevance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the familial and the sporadic forms of the(More)
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta leads to the characteristic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremors. Although these symptoms can be improved using currently available dopamine replacement strategies, there is still a need to improve current strategies of treating these(More)
Defects of mitochondrial metabolism cause a wide range of human diseases that include examples from all medical subspecialties. This review updates the topic of mitochondrial diseases by reviewing the most important recent advances in this area. The factors influencing inheritance, maintenance and replication of mtDNA are reviewed and the genotype-phenotype(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease and is an important cause of chronic disability. Numerous important advances have been made in our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis, pathology and clinical phenomenology of this disease, and these have underpinned advances in symptomatic treatment(More)
Alpha-synuclein aggregation plays a central role in Parkinson's disease pathology. Direct transmission of alpha-synuclein from pathologically affected to healthy unaffected neurons may be important in the anatomical spread of the disease through the nervous system. We have demonstrated that exosomes released from alpha-synuclein over-expressing SH-SY5Y(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and an increased frequency in deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes some of the subunits of the ETC, have been reported in the substantia nigra of PD brains. The(More)
BACKGROUND In models of dopaminergic neuronal loss, the dopamine agonist pramipexole has exhibited neuroprotective properties. The Pramipexole On Underlying Disease (PROUD) study was designed to identify whether early versus delayed pramipexole initiation has clinical and neuroimaging benefits in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS Between May(More)
This paper represents a review of current opinion and information on the effective diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a primary care setting. RLS can be a distressing condition--it can cause serious sleep disturbance and has a significant impact on quality of life comparable to that of depression or type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of adults whose(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in LRRK2, the gene that encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The International LRRK2 Consortium was established to answer three key clinical questions: can LRRK2-associated PD be distinguished from idiopathic PD; which mutations in LRRK2 are pathogenic; and what is the age-specific cumulative(More)
Levodopa is the 'gold standard' drug for the treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). For many years there has been concern regarding its potential to be toxic to the dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra. Much of the evidence to support this is derived from in vitro studies and there are significant limitations in extrapolating(More)