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The pharmacokinetics, physiologic effects, and the metabolization of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are all similar. Their concentrations in plasma and tissue are directly related to daily dosing. The highest concentrations are found in melanin-containing tissues, particularly the choroid and ciliary body of the eye. The pharmacologic effects of(More)
No eye disease was detected in over 900 rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with less than 4.0 mg/kg per day of chloroquine or less than 6.5 mg/kg per day of hydroxychloroquine for a mean of about seven years. I therefore consider these dosage rates safe, since they are below the threshold of retinal toxicity. This is based on more than 6,000(More)
PURPOSE Methotrexate (MTX), when used to treat malignancy or psoriasis, has been implicated in anecdotal reports as a teratogen or abortifacient in the first trimester of pregnancy. We are unaware of any previous reports that describe the course of gestation and the effect on subsequent offspring in patients treated with low-dose oral MTX for rheumatoid(More)
We carefully selected 30 men with primary gout, rendered asymptomatic by therapy, to examine the frequency and type of hyperlipidemia and hyperlipoproteinemia, with the objective of determining whether serum uric acid, alcohol intake, liver function, kidney function, and (or) drugs were participating in the secondary lipid disorder. Sixty-one age- and(More)
Two hundred rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients taking low dose methotrexate (MTX) were evaluated for adverse effects. During a mean follow up of 41.5 months, the mean cell volume (MCV) was elevated at some time during the course of treatment in 42 patients. The MCV was normal in the remaining 158 patients. One hundred ninety-eight patients were treated(More)