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We have investigated the effect of chronic lithium (Li+) treatment on stress-induced hypoalgesia, a phenomenon known to be dependent on the activation and sensitization of the central opioid system. Adult female Wistar rats received either 20 mM LiCl in the drinking water (serum level of 0.5 mEq/l, N = 110) or tap water (controls, N = 113) for 28 days. The(More)
Opiates have been implicated in learned helplessness (LH), a phenomenon known to be related to opiate stress-induced analgesia (SIA). In the present study, we investigated the role of opiates in the induction of LH and SIA under different conditions. Adult female Wistar rats were trained either by receiving 60 inescapable 1-mA footshocks (IS group, N = 114)(More)
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