Learn More
Breakthrough pain (BKP) is a transitory flare of pain that occurs on a background of relatively well controlled baseline pain. Previous surveys have found that BKP is highly prevalent among patients with cancer pain and predicts more severe pain, pain-related distress and functional impairment, and relatively poor quality of life. An international group of(More)
We argue that an astrophysical solution to the ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) problem is viable. The detailed study of UHECR energy spectra is performed. The spectral features of extragalactic protons interacting with Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) are calculated in model-independent way. Using the power-law generation spectrum ∝ Eg as the only(More)
Ultrahigh energy (UHE) extragalactic protons propagating through cosmic microwave radiation (CMB) acquire the spectrum features in the form of the dip, bump (pile-up protons) and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff. We have performed the analysis of these features in terms of the modification factor. This analysis is weakly model-dependent, especially(More)
We present the high-energy neutrino Monte Carlo event generator ANIS (All Neutrino Interaction Simulation). The program provides a detailed and flexible neutrino event simulation for high-energy neutrino detectors, such as AMANDA, ANTARES or ICECUBE. It generates neutrinos of any flavor according to a specified flux and propagates them through the Earth. In(More)
The dip is a feature in the diffuse spectrum of ultra-high energy (UHE) protons in the energy range 1×10−4×10 eV, which is caused by electron-positron pair production on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. For a power-law generation spectrum E, the calculated position and shape of the dip is confirmed with high accuracy by the spectra observed(More)
X iv :a st ro -p h/ 04 10 65 0v 2 1 0 M ay 2 00 5 Propagation and Signatures of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays V. Berezinsky, A. Gazizov and S. Grigorieva INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I–67010 Assergi (AQ), Italy DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October(More)
We discuss as a new signature for the interaction of extragalactic ultrahigh energy protons with cosmic microwave background radiation a spectral feature located at E= 6.3 x 10(19) eV in the form of a narrow and shallow dip. It is produced by the interference of e+e(-)-pair and pion production. We show that this dip and, in particular, its position are(More)
We develop a model inspired by the Auger mass composition for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). The crucial experimental fact for the model is given by the strong proton dominance in energy range (1 3) EeV in agreement with the HiRes data. At higher energies the Auger data show progressively heavier mass composition reaching the Iron-dominated one at E(More)