A Gardiner Wade

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Escitalopram is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. In this study, we compared the efficacy of equivalent dosages of escitalopram and citalopram in the treatment of moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD), based on data from two, pooled, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram in which citalopram was the active reference.(More)
BACKGROUND Citalopram is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor which has been demonstrated to be highly selective and with a superior tolerability profile to the classical tricyclic antidepressants. This study was designed to test whether there was any difference in efficacy in the management of panic disorder (PD) between citalopram and placebo. METHOD This was(More)
Sleep disorders are common in the general population and even more so in clinical practice, yet are relatively poorly understood by doctors and other health care practitioners. These British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines are designed to address this problem by providing an accessible up-to-date and evidence-based outline of the major issues,(More)
OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram and duloxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients were randomised to 24 weeks of double-blind treatment with fixed doses of escitalopram (20 mg) (n = 143) or duloxetine (60 mg) (n = 151). The primary analysis of efficacy was(More)
BACKGROUND Escitalopram has been proven safe and efficacious in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in short-term studies. The long-term clinical tolerability and response to treatment are presented from a 12-month open-label study with a total exposure time to escitalopram of 486 patient years. METHODS Patients (n = 590) with MDD entered the(More)
BACKGROUND Major depression is highly recurrent. Antidepressant maintenance treatment has proven efficacy against recurrent depression. AIMS Comparison of prophylactic efficacy of citalopram versus placebo in unipolar, recurrent depression. METHODS Patients 18-65 years of age with recurrent unipolar major depression (DSM-IV), a Montgomery-Asberg(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of citalopram in the long-term treatment of adult outpatients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. METHOD Patients in this double-blind, parallel-group trial were assigned to 1 of 3 fixed dosage ranges of citalopram (10 or 15 mg/day, 20 or 30 mg/day, or 40 or(More)
OBJECTIVE Melatonin, the hormone produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, serves as a circadian time cue and sleep-anticipating signal in humans. With age, melatonin production declines and the prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, increases. The efficacy and safety of a prolonged release melatonin formulation (PR-melatonin; Circadin* 2 mg)(More)
BACKGROUND Melatonin is extensively used in the USA in a non-regulated manner for sleep disorders. Prolonged release melatonin (PRM) is licensed in Europe and other countries for the short term treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged 55 years and over. However, a clear definition of the target patient population and well-controlled studies of(More)
PURPOSE A link between poor sleep quality and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently been suggested. Since endogenous melatonin levels are already reduced at preclinical AD stages, it is important to ask whether replenishing the missing hormone would be beneficial in AD and whether any such effects would be related to the presence of sleep disorder in(More)