A. G. Balakin

Learn More
We have discovered that all known yeast and vertebrate small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), except for the MRP/7-2 RNA, fall into two major classes. One class is defined by conserved boxes C and D and the other by a novel element: a consensus ACA triplet positioned 3 nt before the 3' end of the RNA. A role for the ACA box is snoRNA stability has been established(More)
A growing subset of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) contains long stretches of sequence complementarity to conserved sequences in mature ribosomal RNA (rRNA). This article reviews current knowledge about these complementarities and proposes that these antisense snoRNAs might function in pre-rRNA folding, base modification and ribosomal ribonucleoprotein(More)
Yeast U14 small nuclear (sn) RNA is required for normal processing of rRNA. The sequence and folding properties of U14 were analyzed in the present study, with the aim of defining the structures of natural U14 subspecies and characterizing the folding properties of free U14 RNA. Natural U14 was determined to consist of four subspecies of 125-128(More)
Genes for three novel snRNAs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been isolated, sequenced and tested for essentiality. The RNAs encoded by these genes are designated snR34, snR35 and snR36 respectively and contain 203, 204 and 182 nucleotides. Each RNA is derived from a single copy gene and all three RNAs are believed to be nucleolar, i.e. snoRNAs, based on(More)
Genes for three novel yeast snRNAs have been identified and tested for essentiality. Partial sequence information was developed for RNA extracted from isolated nuclei and the respective gene sequences were discovered by screening a DNA sequence database. The three RNAs contain 222, 188 and 183 nucleotides and are designated snR31, snR32 and snR33,(More)
The mRNA encoding repressor cI of phage lambda is the only known E. coli message which starts directly with the initiation AUG codon. The ability of in vitro synthesized cI mRNA fragments (150 or 400 nts) to form ternary initiation complexes has been studied using the toeprint method. In the presence of tRNA(Met)f, these fragments are capable of forming the(More)
An artificial gene comprising 183 base pairs has been assembled by template-directed condensation of 35- to 53-membered oligodeoxyribo nucleotides with cyanogen bromide as a condensing agent. The reaction is complete within several minutes at 0 degrees C in buffer. The resulting mini-gene was cloned and expressed in vivo and in vitro. We have also found(More)
Using an RNA footprinting technique, accessible sites on the mRNA initiation region bound to the ribosome have been determined. Chemical probing experiments have been done both in the presence and absence of the initiator tRNA with dimethyl sulfate, kethoxal and carbodiimide as reagent probes. As an mRNA, a mini-mRNA containing the initiation region of(More)
The role of ribosomal protein S1 in the translation of mRNA containing an extended Shine-Dalgarno sequence was investigated. Using the toeprinting technique, formation of the ternary initiation complex between 30S subunits, both S1-depleted or treated with anti-S1 antibodies, and mini-mRNA containing the 9 nucleotide-long Shine-Dalgarno sequence was(More)