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Stimulation of the Torpedine ray electric organ can cause the loss of synaptic vesicles and the growth of pseudopodia from the nerve terminals (Boyne, A. F., and S. McLeod (1979) Neuroscience 4: 615-624). The latter embed themselves in corresponding indentations in abutted terminals. The geometry of these pseudopodial indentations (PSIs) can vary: (i) in(More)
This study was undertaken to measure the effect of maximal stimulation of sodium pump activity on the rate of energy metabolism in mouse cerebral astrocytes. The rate of uptake of 3H-2-deoxyglucose (3H-2-DG) was measured in astrocyte cultures sodium-loaded either by incubation in a K+-deficient solution or by use of the carboxylic sodium ionophore monensin.(More)
Thin, isolated stacks of Narcine brasiliensis electric organ were prepared for freeze substitution using a rapid freezing device similar to that described by Van Harreveld and Crowell (1964). Although the impact stress was reduced as much as the design of the apparatus allowed, the tissue was found to become severely squashed and the first layer of nerve(More)
Narcine brasiliensis electric organ was stimulated to fatigue in vivo. Electrical display of organ output and biochemical assay of bound acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP in isolated vesicles were used to assess the state of fatigue relative to denervated control organs of the same fish. A morphometric analysis of the fate of the synaptic vesicle populations in(More)
The present study demonstrates that the reversible and irreversible anti-ChE agents have direct actions on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ionic channel (AChR) and on the locust glutamatergic neuromuscular junction. In addition, the prophylaxis of lethality of organophosphorus anti-ChE compounds was studied. The lethality of VX and sarin was diminished(More)
When exocytosis of synaptic vesicles is accompanied by the accumulation of vesicle membrane in the nerve terminal membrane, the geometric shape of the terminal must alter. The details of these rearrangements vary with the anatomical site; this laboratory has reported on the responses of abutted nerve terminals in the electric ray electric organ. When they(More)
Rats were treated with single subcutaneous injections of the irreversible AChE inhibitors, sarin (90 to 100 micrograms/kg) or soman (55 micrograms/kg), and with chronic doses of the reversible carbamate inhibitor, pyridostigmine. In surviving animals with severe behavioral symptoms, we examined the end-plate regions of the slow-twitch soleus and the(More)
A method of quick-freezing and freeze-substitution has been developed for localizing diffusible substances such as 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (2-DG-6-P) ultrastructurally in neural tissue. Quick-freezing under pressure provides well preserved tissue down to 30-35 microns from the surface. This allows blocks of neural tissue to be quick-frozen and analysed(More)
Axoplasm from freshly isolated Myxicola giant axons was mixed with small volumes of 'artificial axoplasm' containing 45Ca and either CaEGTA/EGTA or CaDTPA/DTPA buffers giving various nominal values of [Ca2+]. The axoplasm samples were centrifuged at 100 000 X g for 30 min to form a pellet and the percentage of 45Ca bound to the pellet was determined. The(More)