A. F. Bouwman

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This analysis is based on published measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fertilized and unfertilized fields. Data was selected in order to evaluate the importance of factors that regulate N2O production, including soil conditions, type of crop, nitrogen (N) fertilizer type and soil and crop management. Reported N2O losses from anhydrous ammonia(More)
Denitrification is a critical process regulating the removal of bioavailable nitrogen (N) from natural and human-altered systems. While it has been extensively studied in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems, there has been limited communication among denitrification scientists working in these individual systems. Here, we compare rates of(More)
Information taken from 336 measurements of denitrification in agricultural soils was summarized to assess the influence on denitrification of several factors related to soil, climate, agricultural management and the measurement techniques. The data set is summarized by calculating means and medians and balanced median values (with correction for unbalanced(More)
Phosphorus (P) is a finite and dwindling resource. Debate focuses on current production and use of phosphate rock rather than on the amounts of P required in the future to feed the world. We applied a two-pool soil P model to reproduce historical continental crop P uptake as a function of P inputs from fertilizer and manure and to estimate P requirements(More)
We examine the global distribution of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and particulate nitrogen (PN) export to coastal systems and the effect of human activities and natural processes on that export. The analysis is based on DIN and PN models that were combined with spatially explicit global databases. The model results indicate the widely uneven(More)
Soil nitrogen (N) budgets are used in a global, distributed flow-path model with 0.5° × 0.5° resolution, representing denitrification and N2O emissions from soils, groundwater and riparian zones for the period 1900-2000 and scenarios for the period 2000-2050 based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Total agricultural and natural N inputs from N(More)
Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the(More)
[1] This paper presents estimates for global N and P emissions from sewage for the period 1970–2050 for the four Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios. Using country-specific projections for population and economic growth, urbanization, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment installations, a rapid increase in global sewage emissions is(More)
A comparison of nitrogen (N) budgets for the year 2000 of agro-ecosystems is made for the EU 27 countries by four models with different complexity and data requirements, i.e. INTEGRATOR, IDEAg, MITERRA and IMAGE. The models estimate a comparable total N input in European agriculture, i.e. 23.3-25.7 Mton N yr(-1), but N uptake varies more, i.e. from 11.3 to(More)
This paper presents an estimate of the amount of nitrogen involved in the use and trade of feedstuffs for a number of world regions. Livestock production has shown a steady increase world-wide as a result of an annual increase of 1.4% in developing countries and 0.9% in developed countries during the period 1960–1990. Particularly in developing countries,(More)