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Peripheral immune activation can have profound physiological and behavioral effects including induction of fever and sickness behavior. One mechanism through which immune activation or immunomodulation may affect physiology and behavior is via actions on brainstem neuromodulatory systems, such as serotonergic systems. We have found that peripheral immune(More)
This study investigated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54) by cells of the central nervous system (CNS) during acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and chronic relapsing EAE (CREAE). In the CNS of normal guinea pigs, only a few endothelial cells expressed detectable levels of ICAM-1, whereas during the active(More)
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