A Elisabeth Hak

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BACKGROUND Autoinflammatory diseases manifest inflammation without evidence of infection, high-titer autoantibodies, or autoreactive T cells. We report a disorder caused by mutations of IL1RN, which encodes the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist, with prominent involvement of skin and bone. METHODS We studied nine children from six families who had(More)
BACKGROUND Overt hypothyroidism has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease is controversial. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity are associated with aortic atherosclerosis and(More)
offerosclerosis and osteoporosis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women and have been suggested to be associated. No study has examined whether progression of atherosclerotic calcification is associated with bone loss. In the present study, we examined progression of aortic calcification, diagnosed by radiographic detection of(More)
In both men and women, circulating androgen levels decline with advancing age. Until now, results of several small studies on the relationship between endogenous androgen levels and atherosclerosis have been inconsistent. In the population-based Rotterdam Study, we investigated the association of levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and total(More)
Obesity, the insulin resistance syndrome, and atherosclerosis are closely linked and may all be determinants of an increased acute-phase response. In this study, we examined the relationship of C-reactive protein (CRP) with measures of obesity, variables of the insulin resistance syndrome, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries in 186(More)
Low estrogen exposure throughout life is thought to result in low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In the Rotterdam Study we cross-sectionally examined the relation between BMD and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as assessed by an ankle-arm index (AAI) of <0.9 in either leg. Data on BMD and PAD were(More)
INTRODUCTION Despite the substantial prevalence of gout in the ageing female population, female hormonal influence has not been comprehensively examined. We evaluated and quantified the potential independent association between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of women. METHODS Using(More)
Besides genetic defects in the enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism and nutritional deficiencies in vitamin cofactors, sex steroid hormones may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. The post-menopausal state has been found to be associated with higher plasma homocysteine levels, but data are inconsistent and studies published so far did not adjust for(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several measures of atherosclerosis predict the risk of stroke. However, a comparison between various measures of atherosclerosis is lacking, and limited information exists on the added value of individual measures of atherosclerosis to cardiovascular risk factors. We compared different measures of atherosclerosis in relation to(More)
OBJECTIVE Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, prospective population-based data addressing this association have been lacking. METHODS We conducted a prospective cohort study among 119,332 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study who were free of cardiovascular disease(More)