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The induced electric field E(x) during magnetic flux entry in superconductors with arbitrary cross section Ω and general critical current law, has been evaluated by integration along the vortex penetration paths. Nontrivial flux motion streamlines are obtained from a variational statement of the critical state, which takes the form of an optimization(More)
We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on(More)
The microscopic structure of Langmuir films of derivatized gold nanoparticles has been studied as a function of area/particle on the water surface. The molecules (AuSHDA) consist of gold particles of mean core diameter D approximately 22 angstroms that have been stabilized by attachment of carboxylic acid terminated alkylthiols, HS-(CH2)15-COOH. Compression(More)
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