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The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is mutualistically associated with entomopathogenetic nematodes. These nematodes invade insect larvae and release the bacteria from their intestine, which kills the insects through the action of toxin complexes. We elucidated the mode of action of two of these insecticidal toxins from P. luminescens. We identified the(More)
The actin cytoskeleton is an attractive target for bacterial toxins. The ADP-ribosyltransferase TccC3 from the insect bacterial pathogen Photorhabdus luminescence modifies actin to force its aggregation. We intended to transport the catalytic part of this toxin preferentially into cancer cells using a toxin transporter (Protective antigen, PA) which was(More)
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of the binding component C2II and the enzyme component C2I, which ADP-ribosylates G-actin of eukaryotic cells. Trypsin-activated C2II (C2IIa) forms heptamers that mediate cell binding and translocation of C2I from acidic endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. By genome sequencing of C. botulinum strain (C) 2300,(More)
Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin consists of the protective antigen (PA) and the metalloprotease lethal factor (LF). During cellular uptake PA forms pores in membranes of endosomes, and unfolded LF translocates through the pores into the cytosol. We have investigated whether host cell chaperones facilitate translocation of LF and the fusion protein LF(N)DTA.(More)
TccC3 and TccC5 from Photorhabdus luminescens are ADP-ribosyltransferases, which modify actin and Rho GTPases, respectively, thereby inducing polymerization and clustering of actin. The bacterial proteins are components of the Photorhabdus toxin complexes, consisting of the binding and translocation component TcdA1, a proposed linker component TcdB2 and the(More)
Various bacterial protein toxins and effectors target the actin cytoskeleton. At least three groups of toxins/effectors can be identified, which directly modify actin molecules. One group of toxins/effectors causes ADP-ribosylation of actin at arginine-177, thereby inhibiting actin polymerization. Members of this group are numerous binary(More)
The actin-ADP-ribosylating Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of the enzymatic component C2I and the binding component C2II. C2II forms heptameric channels involved in translocation of the enzymatic component into the target cell. On the basis of the heptameric toxin channel, we studied functional consequences of mutagenesis of amino acid residues(More)
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin belongs to the family of binary AB type toxins that are structurally organized into distinct enzyme (A, C2I) and binding (B, C2II) components. The proteolytically activated 60-kDa C2II binding component is essential for C2I transport into target cells. It oligomerizes into heptamers and forms channels in lipid bilayer(More)
The protective antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin forms a heptameric pore in endosomal membranes of mammalian cells and translocates the enzymatic moieties of the toxin to the cytosol of these cells. Phenylalanine-427 (F427), a solvent-exposed residue in the lumen of the pore, was identified earlier as being crucial for the transport function of PA. The(More)
Toxin complexes from Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. bacteria represent novel insecticidal proteins. We purified a native toxin complex (toxin complex 1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus. The toxin complex is composed of three different proteins, XptA2, XptB1, and XptC1, representing products from class A, B, and C toxin complex genes, respectively. We(More)