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Human norovirus (NoV) outbreak investigations suggest that the hands of infected individuals play an important role in NoV transmission. However, there is no experimental evidence documenting the likelihood and degree of NoV contamination on hands. As part of a clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of high-pressure processing for Norwalk virus(More)
Although bacteriophage have been reported to be the most abundant organisms on earth, little is known about their contribution to the ecology of natural communities of their host bacteria. Most importantly, what role do these viral parasitoids play in regulating the densities of bacterial populations? To address this question, we use experimental(More)
Efficient utilization of heme as an iron (Fe) source by Bordetella avium requires bhuR, an Fe-regulated gene which encodes an outer membrane heme receptor. Upstream of bhuR is a 507-bp open reading frame, hereby designated rhuI (for regulator of heme uptake), which codes for a 19-kDa polypeptide. Whereas the 19-kDa polypeptide had homology to a subfamily of(More)
AIMS This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). METHODS AND RESULTS To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major(More)
For many bacterial infections, noninherited mechanisms of resistance are responsible for extending the term of treatment and in some cases precluding its success. Among the most important of these noninherited mechanisms of resistance is the ability of bacteria to form biofilms. There is compelling evidence that bacteria within biofilms are more refractory(More)
Iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for most bacterial pathogens. In these organisms, a variety of regulatory systems that respond to specific Fe complexes found within their vertebrate hosts have evolved. In Bordetella avium, the heme utilization locus encoded by rhuIR-bhuRSTUV mediates efficient acquisition of Fe from heme and hemoproteins. Control of(More)
Genes involved in iron (Fe) acquisition often are regulated in response to the local availability of Fe. In many bacteria, Fe-dependent responsiveness is mediated by Fur, a global Fe-dependent transcriptional repressor. Tighter regulatory control of Fur-responsive genes is afforded by incorporating additional regulators into Fur-dependent regulatory(More)
Norovirus is the most common cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis, causing approximately 21 million cases annually in the USA. The virus is highly contagious and resistant to decontamination, making outbreaks difficult to control. To facilitate the development of better control methods, this study characterized the viral shedding patterns in stools(More)
With the increasing frequency of antibiotic resistance and the decreasing frequency of new antibiotics entering the market, interest has returned to developing bacteriophage as a therapeutic agent. Acceptance of phage therapy, however, is limited by the unknown pharmacodynamics of a replicating agent, as well as the potential for the evolution of resistant(More)
Limiting the environmental transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which infect 1.5 billion people worldwide, will require sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective methods to detect and quantify STHs in the environment. We review the state-of-the-art of STH quantification in soil, biosolids, water, produce, and vegetation with regard to four major(More)