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We measured the timing of spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations and action potentials of medial and lateral agranular corticostriatal and striatal neurons with the use of in vivo intracellular recordings in urethan-anesthetized rats. All neurons showed spontaneous subthreshold membrane potential shifts from 7 to 32 mV in amplitude, fluctuating between(More)
The distribution of rat corticostrial axons in the patch (striosome) and matrix compartments of the neostriatum was studied by using axonal labeling with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and identifying patch and matrix in the same section with calbindin immunocytochemistry. Small injections of BDA were made in the anterior cingulate, medial agranular,(More)
The distribution of synapses formed by corticostriatal neurons was measured to determine the average connectivity and degree of convergence of these neurons and to search for spatial inhomogeneities. Two kinds of axonal fields, focal and extended, and two striatal tissue compartments, the patch (striosome) and matrix, were analyzed separately. Electron(More)
Food-borne transmission of prions can lead to infection of the gastrointestinal tract and neuroinvasion via the splanchnic and vagus nerves. Here we report that the transmission of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is 100,000-fold more efficient by inoculation of prions into the tongues of hamsters than by oral ingestion. The incubation period(More)
The spread of the abnormal conformation of the prion protein, PrP(Sc), within the spinal cord is central to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, but the mechanism of transport has not been determined. For this report, the route of transport of the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), a prion disease of mink, in the central(More)
Animals that naturally acquire the prion diseases have a well-developed olfactory sense that they utilize for a variety of basic behaviors. To assess the potential for the nasal cavity to serve as a point of entry for prion diseases, a small amount of prion-infected brain homogenate was placed inferior to the nostrils of hamsters, where it was immediately(More)
The presence of the prion agent in skeletal muscle is thought to be due to the infection of nerve fibers located within the muscle. We report here that the pathological isoform of the prion protein, PrP(Sc), accumulates within skeletal muscle cells, in addition to axons, in the tongue of hamsters following intralingual and intracerebral inoculation of the(More)
The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me) is part of a neural pathway that regulates sexual behavior in the male Syrian hamster. To characterize the neurochemical content of neurons in this nucleus, brains from colchicine-treated adult male and female hamsters were immunocytochemically labeled using antibodies that recognize the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes,(More)
While neuropathological features that define prion strains include spongiform degeneration and deposition patterns of PrP(Sc), the underlying mechanism for the strain-specific differences in PrP(Sc) targeting is not known. To investigate prion strain targeting, we inoculated hamsters in the sciatic nerve with either the hyper (HY) or drowsy (DY) strain of(More)
In situ hybridization was used to study the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage to the midbrain dopaminergic neurons on the level of glutamate decarboxylase mRNA in globus pallidus neurons in the rat. Some animals received an injection of Fluoro-gold in the entopeduncular nucleus or the substantia nigra prior to the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion in order(More)