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To the extent that stereotype and identity threat undermine academic performance, social psychological interventions that lessen threat could buffer threatened students and improve performance. Two studies, each featuring a longitudinal field experiment in a mixed-ethnicity middle school, examined whether a values affirmation writing exercise could(More)
Three studies investigated whether self-affirmation can proceed without awareness, whether people are aware of the influence of experimental self-affirmations, and whether such awareness facilitates or undermines the self-affirmation process. The authors found that self-affirmation effects could proceed without awareness, as implicit self-affirming primes(More)
Five experiments demonstrate how potential moral stigma leads people to underplay their susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and dampens their interest in getting tested. After adding unprotected sex to a list of otherwise innocuous possible vectors for a disease, the authors found that infected people were perceived to be less moral(More)
How people maintain and repair their self-esteem has been a topic of widespread interest. In this article, the authors ask, What determines whether people will use direct, remedial actions, or defensive actions? In three studies, they tested the hypothesis that a belief in fixed intelligence (entity theory) would produce defensiveness, whereas a belief in(More)
Model-based reasoning requires not only inferences about what is 5 happening, but also evaluations of the desirability of what is happening. Emotions 6 are a key part of such assessments, but sometimes they can lead people astray, as 7 in motivated inference when people believe what fits with their desires. In contrast 8 to motivated inference, fear-driven(More)
► Positive stereotypes are especially detrimental to egalitarian social perception. ► Exposure to a positive stereotype led to increased essentialism. ► Exposure to a positive stereotype led to increased application of prejudicial beliefs. ► These results were relative to baseline and negative stereotype exposure conditions. a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i(More)
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