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A short review describes quantitative aspects of glucose metabolism in lactating ruminants, including the contribution of different substrates to glucose synthesis as affected by nutritional and hormonal regulation. Gluconeogenesis from propionate (the major gluconeogenic substrate in the fed state) is mainly regulated by feed intake and increased(More)
To investigate the metabolism of 1,2-propanediol (PPD) in lactating cows independently of normal rumen microbial metabolism, three ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were subjected to three experimental infusion protocols under washed reticulo-ruminal conditions in a Latin square design. Reticulo-ruminal absorption rates were maintained for 420(More)
The net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was investigated in four ruminally fistulated and multicatheterized sheep. During the experiments, the sheep were fed once every hour for 14 h and intraruminally infused with mixtures of VFA for the 12 h commencing 2 h after the initiation of the hourly feeding protocol. Paired arterial and portal(More)
A quantitative literature review was undertaken on the amino acid fluxes in ruminants and the factors which influence them. Two aspects were considered: blood flow and amino acid uptake by tissues. The statistical relationships indicated that blood flow was influenced by feed intake, metabolizable energy and milk production. The rates of amino acid uptake(More)
The present experiment was conducted to study the impact of portal-drained visceral (PDV) metabolism of arterial 3-OH-butyrate on estimates of the portal recovery of intraruminally infused butyrate. Three multicatheterized and rumen-fistulated Leicester ewes were subjected to three intraruminal infusion protocols in a Latin square design: control (C;(More)
A kinetic modelling approach was developed and investigated with the aim of predicting the utilization of major substrates in the mammary gland and milk secretion rates in the lactating cow at varying concentrations of substrate in arterial blood. The model includes kinetic equations of transport and metabolism of glucose, acetate, free amino acids and free(More)
Simultaneous equations have become increasingly popular for describing the effects of nutrition on the utilization of ME for protein (PD) and lipid deposition (LD) in animals. The study developed a multivariate nonlinear mixed effects (MNLME) framework and compared it with an alternative method for estimating parameters in simultaneous equations that(More)
A simultaneous model for analysis of net energy intake and growth curves is presented, viewing the animal's responses as a two dimensional outcome. The model is derived from four assumptions: (1) the intake is a quadratic function of metabolic weight; (2) the rate of body energy accretion represents the difference between intake and maintenance; (3) the(More)
Growth functions have been used to predict market weight of pigs and maximize return over feed costs. This study was undertaken to compare 4 growth functions and methods of analyzing data, particularly one that considers nonlinear repeated measures. Data were collected from an experiment with 40 pigs maintained from birth to maturity and their BW measured(More)
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), viz. acetate, propionate and butyrate are quantitatively important substrates in ruminant energy metabolism. In the reviewed literature, 16 44% of ME intake was recovered as portal appearance of SCFA. This is considerably lower than expected when related to the estimated intragastric flux of SCFA. The discrepancy is caused by(More)