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Withdrawal from orally self-administered phencyclidine (PCP) has been shown to alter operant baselines of food-maintained responding. The goal of the present study was to determine whether there are sex differences in these alterations. Seven female and 7 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given concurrent access to PCP and water under fixed ratio(More)
RATIONALE Rats selectively bred for high saccharin (HiS) intake consume more alcohol, acquire intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration more rapidly, and show more dysregulated patterns of cocaine self-administration than their low saccharin-consuming (LoS) counterparts. OBJECTIVES The purpose of the present study was to determine whether HiS and LoS(More)
Evidence is accumulating that the etiology, epidemiology, consequences and mechanisms that underlie drug abuse are different in males and females. In this review, we present examples of sex differences in all phases of drug abuse, including acquisition, steady-state maintenance, escalation, dysregulation, withdrawal, relapse and treatment. Most reported(More)
Previous research in rats indicates that delay discounting for food, a model of impulsivity, predicted the rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration. In other studies, rats bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) acquired cocaine self-administration at higher rates than those with low saccharin intake (LoS), and female (F) rats acquired cocaine(More)
Describing the process of spontaneous mutation is fundamental for understanding the genetic basis of disease, the threat posed by declining population size in conservation biology, and much of evolutionary biology. Directly studying spontaneous mutation has been difficult, however, because new mutations are rare. Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments(More)
Estimates of mutational parameters, such as the average fitness effect of a new mutation and the rate at which new genetic variation for fitness is created by mutation, are important for the understanding of many biological processes. However, the causes of interspecific variation in mutational parameters and the extent to which they vary within species(More)
RATIONALE Rats selectively bred for high intake of a sweet saccharin solution (HiS) consume more ethanol than their low-saccharin intake (LoS) counterparts. The HiS phenotype may be a predictor of abuse of other drugs via other routes of administration. OBJECTIVE HiS and LoS, male and female rats were tested for acquisition of IV cocaine and heroin(More)
RATIONALE Studies with male rats indicate that long access (LgA) vs short access (ShA) to i.v. cocaine and heroin self-administration leads to an escalation of drug intake and a subsequent upward shift of the dose-response function. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this experiment was to extend these results to male and female rhesus monkeys and oral(More)
Baclofen, a GABA(B) agonist, decreases both the maintenance and reinstatement of i.v. cocaine-reinforced responding in rats. In the present experiment the effects of baclofen were extended to a comparison of male and female rats during the acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration. Four groups of rats were trained to self-administer i.v. cocaine (0.2(More)