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Although gel-based microchips offer significant advantages over two-dimensional arrays, their use has been impeded by the lack of an efficient manufacturing procedure. Here we describe two simple, fast, and reproducible methods of fabrication of DNA gel drop microchips. In the first, copolymerization method, unsaturated groups are chemically attached to(More)
We have developed a three-component system for microbial identification that consists of (i) a universal syringe-operated silica minicolumn for successive DNA and RNA isolation, fractionation, fragmentation, fluorescent labeling, and removal of excess free label and short oligonucleotides; (ii) microarrays of immobilized oligonucleotide probes for 16S rRNA(More)
Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-microm gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel.(More)
Several procedures have been described for fluorescent labeling of DNA and RNA. They are based on the introduction of aldehyde groups by partial depurination of DNA or oxidation of the 3'-terminal ribonucleoside in RNA by sodium periodate. Fluorescent labels with an attached hydrazine group are efficiently coupled with the aldehyde groups and the hydrazone(More)
A new method of DNA sequencing by hybridization using a microchip containing a set of immobilized oligonucleotides is being developed. A theoretical analysis is presented of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with deoxynucleotide molecules chemically tethered in a polyacrylamide gel layer. The analysis has shown that long-term evolution of the spatial(More)
We present a further development in the technology of sequencing by hybridization to oligonucleotide microchips (SHOM) and its application to diagnostics for genetic diseases. A robot has been constructed to manufacture sequencing "microchips." The microchip is an array of oligonucleotides immobilized into gel elements fixed on a glass plate. Hybridization(More)
A series of biochip readers developed for gel-based biochips includes three imaging models and a novel nonimaging biochip scanner. The imaging readers, ranging from a research-grade versatile reader to a simple portable one, use wide-field objectives and 12-bit digital large-coupled device cameras for parallel addressing of multiple array elements. This(More)
A simple procedure for manufacturing microchips containing various gel-immobilized compounds is described. A gel photopolymerization technique is introduced to produce micromatrices of polyacrylamide gel pads (25 x 25 x 20 microm and larger) separated by a hydrophobic glass surface. A pin device for the manual application of a compound in solution onto the(More)
Two procedures, multibase and multiprimer, have been developed for single nucleotide extension of primers immobilized within polyacrylamide gel pads on a microchip. In the multibase assay, a primer is next to a polymorphic nucleotide; the nucleotide is identified by the specificity with which the primer incorporates fluorescently labeled(More)