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Although gel-based microchips offer significant advantages over two-dimensional arrays, their use has been impeded by the lack of an efficient manufacturing procedure. Here we describe two simple, fast, and reproducible methods of fabrication of DNA gel drop microchips. In the first, copolymerization method, unsaturated groups are chemically attached to(More)
Here a simple, reproducible, and versatile method is described for manufacturing protein and ligand chips. The photo-induced copolymerization of acrylamide-based gel monomers with different probes (oligonucleotides, DNA, proteins, and low-molecular ligands) modified by the introduction of methacrylic groups takes place in drops on a glass or silicone(More)
We have developed a three-component system for microbial identification that consists of (i) a universal syringe-operated silica minicolumn for successive DNA and RNA isolation, fractionation, fragmentation, fluorescent labeling, and removal of excess free label and short oligonucleotides; (ii) microarrays of immobilized oligonucleotide probes for 16S rRNA(More)
The utility of parallel hybridization of environmental nucleic acids to many oligonucleotides immobilized in a matrix of polyacrylamide gel pads on a glass slide (oligonucleotide microchip) was evaluated. Oligonucleotides complementary to small-subunit rRNA sequences of selected microbial groups, encompassing key genera of nitrifying bacteria, were shown to(More)
Activity measurements by radioisotopic methods and cultural and molecular approaches were used in parallel to investigate the microbial biodiversity and its physiological potential in formation waters of the Samotlor high-temperature oil reservoir (Western Siberia, Russia). Sulfate reduction with rates not exceeding 20 nmol of H(2)S liter(-1) day(-1)(More)
Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-microm gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel.(More)
Several procedures have been described for fluorescent labeling of DNA and RNA. They are based on the introduction of aldehyde groups by partial depurination of DNA or oxidation of the 3'-terminal ribonucleoside in RNA by sodium periodate. Fluorescent labels with an attached hydrazine group are efficiently coupled with the aldehyde groups and the hydrazone(More)
A series of biochip readers developed for gel-based biochips includes three imaging models and a novel nonimaging biochip scanner. The imaging readers, ranging from a research-grade versatile reader to a simple portable one, use wide-field objectives and 12-bit digital large-coupled device cameras for parallel addressing of multiple array elements. This(More)