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We study the drainage of the precorneal tear film in humans. A fluid dynamic model for the drainage of the aqueous layer is developed that includes the effects of evaporation and gravity. The model may be reduced to a single nonlinear partial differential equation for the thickness of the aqueous layer. The equation is solved numerically and accurate times(More)
In the petroleum industry, measurements of the density and viscosity of petroleum reservoir fluids are required to determine the value of the produced fluid and the production strategy. Measurements of the density and viscosity of petroleum fluids require a transducer that can operate at reservoir conditions, and results with an uncertainty of about ±1% in(More)
A mathematical model is developed for a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) instrument that has been designed primarily to measure the viscosity of fluids that are encountered during oil well exploration. It is shown that, in one mode of operation, the displacement of the device satisfies a fractional differential equation (FDE). The theory of FDEs is(More)
Until the 1960s much of the experimental work on the thermophysical properties of fluids was devoted to the development of methods for the measurement of the properties of simple fluids under moderate temperatures and pressures. By the end of the 1960s a few methods had emerged that had both a rigorous mathematical description of the experimental method and(More)
AIM To establish the likelihood of, and risk factors associated with, progression of 'macula-on' retinal detachment. METHODS A multi-centre prospective observational study of patients with acute retinal detachment, not involving the fovea, was conducted over a 6-month period. Data collected included duration of symptoms, visual acuity, presence of(More)
AIMS To describe baseline characteristics and visual outcome for eyes treated with ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) from a multicentre database. METHODS Structured clinical data were anonymised and extracted from an electronic medical record from 19 participating UK centres: age at first injection, ETDRS visual acuity (VA), number of(More)
The analysis of a new viscometer that takes the form of an oscillating plate, fabricated from silicon using the methods of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) is considered. The instrument is designed principally for experimental use in the oil industry. The plate is 1.6 mm wide, 2.4 mm long, and 20µm thick. It is suspended from a 0.4 mm thick support(More)
Planar cells provide an attractive alternative to traditional cylindrical cells for polymer electrolyte conductivity measurement as they not only allow sample quantity minimisation but also equilibration with vapour. They are also a key component in the parallel screening of combinatorially synthesised arrays of samples. A finite element simulation(More)